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第 175 章 Git - Fast Version Control System

distributed revision control system

目录

175.1. Repositories 仓库管理
175.1.1. initial setup
175.1.2. checkout
175.1.3. Creating and Commiting
175.1.4. Manager remote
175.1.5. Status
175.1.6. Diff
175.1.6.1. --name-only 仅显示文件名
175.1.7. Cloning
175.1.8. Push
175.1.9. Pull
175.1.10. fetch
175.1.11. Creating a Patch
175.1.12. reset
175.2. Manipulating branches
175.2.1. list branches
175.2.2. create branches
175.2.3. delete branches
175.2.4. switch branch
175.2.5. git-show-branch - Show branches and their commits
175.3. Sharing Repositories with others
175.3.1. Setting up a git server
175.4. command
175.4.1. git-add - Add file contents to the index
175.4.2. git-status - Show the working tree status
175.4.3. git-commit - Record changes to the repository
175.4.4. git-show - Show various types of objects
175.4.5. git-checkout - Checkout and switch to a branch
175.4.5.1. checkout master
175.4.5.2. checkout branch
175.4.6. git config
175.4.7. git log
175.5. git-daemon 服务器
175.5.1. git-daemon - A really simple server for git repositories
175.5.2. git-daemon-sysvinit
175.5.3. inet.conf / xinetd 方式启动
175.5.4. git-daemon-run
175.5.5. Testing
175.6. git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a single Subversion branch and git
175.7. .gitignore
175.8. .gitattributes
175.8.1. SVN Keywords
175.9. gitolite - SSH-based gatekeeper for git repositories
175.9.1. gitolite-admin
175.9.1.1. gitolite.conf
175.9.1.1.1. staff
175.9.1.1.2. repo
175.10. Web Tools
175.10.1. viewgit
175.11. FAQ
175.11.1. 导出最后一次修改过的文件
175.11.2. 导出指定版本区间修改过的文件
175.11.3. fatal: The remote end hung up unexpectedly
175.11.4. 回撤提交

homepage: http://git.or.cz/index.html

过程 175.1. Git

  1. install

    sudo apt-get install git-core
    			
  2. config

    			
    $ git-config --global user.name neo
    $ git-config --global user.email openunix@163.com
    			
    			
  3. Initializ

    $ mkdir repository
    $ cd repository/
    
    /repository$ git-init-db
    Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
    			

    to check .gitconfig file

    $ cat ~/.gitconfig
    [user]
            name = chen
            email = openunix@163.com
    			

175.1. Repositories 仓库管理

175.1.1. initial setup

Tell git who you are:

$ git config user.name "FirstName LastName"
$ git config user.email "user@example.com"

If you have many git repositories under your current user, you can set this for all of them


$ git config --global user.name "FirstName LastName"
$ git config --global user.email "user@example.com"

If you want pretty colors, you can setup the following for branch, status, and diff commands:

$ git config --global color.branch "auto"
$ git config --global color.status "auto"
$ git config --global color.diff "auto"

Or, to turn all color options on (with git 1.5.5+), use:

$ git config --global color.ui "auto"
To enable aut-detection for number of threads to use (good for multi-CPU or multi-core computers) for packing repositories, use:


$ git config --global pack.threads "0"
To disable the rename detection limit (which is set "pretty low" according to Linus, "just to not cause problems for people who have less memory in their machines than kernel developers tend to have"), use:

$ git config --global   diff.renamelimit "0"
		

175.1.2. checkout

将 nqp-cc/src/QASTCompilerMAST.nqp 文件 重置到 211ab0b19f25b8c81685a97540f4b1491eb17504 版本

git checkout 211ab0b19f25b8c81685a97540f4b1491eb17504 -- nqp-cc/src/QASTCompilerMAST.nqp
		

175.1.3. Creating and Commiting

$ cd (project-directory)
$ git init
$ (add some files)
$ git add .
$ git commit -m 'Initial commit'
		

175.1.4. Manager remote

remote add

		
git remote add origin git@localhost:example.git
		
		

remote show

		
git remote show
origin
		
		

remote rm

		
git remote rm origin
		
		

添加多个远程仓库

git remote add origin git@localhost:example.git
git remote add another https://gitcafe.com/netkiller/netkiller.gitcafe.com.git
git push origin master
git push another master
		

175.1.5. Status

		
$ git clone git://10.10.0.5/example.git
Cloning into example...
remote: Counting objects: 5, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (4/4), done.
remote: Total 5 (delta 1), reused 0 (delta 0)
Receiving objects: 100% (5/5), done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (1/1), done.

neo@neo-OptiPlex-380:~/tmp$ cd example/

neo@neo-OptiPlex-380:~/tmp/example$ git status
# On branch master
nothing to commit (working directory clean)

neo@neo-OptiPlex-380:~/tmp/example$ ls
test1  test2  test3  test4

neo@neo-OptiPlex-380:~/tmp/example$ echo hello > test1

neo@neo-OptiPlex-380:~/tmp/example$ git status
# On branch master
# Changes not staged for commit:
#   (use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
#   (use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory)
#
#	modified:   test1
#
no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")
		
		

175.1.6. Diff

		
neo@neo-OptiPlex-380:~/tmp/example$ git diff
diff --git a/test1 b/test1
index e69de29..ce01362 100644
--- a/test1
+++ b/test1
@@ -0,0 +1 @@
+hello
		
		

比较 nqp-cc/src/QASTCompilerMAST.nqp 文件 当前版本与 211ab0b19f25b8c81685a97540f4b1491eb17504 版本的区别

git diff 211ab0b19f25b8c81685a97540f4b1491eb17504 -- nqp-cc/src/QASTCompilerMAST.nqp
		

175.1.6.1. --name-only 仅显示文件名

git diff --name-only
			

175.1.7. Cloning

		
$ git clone git://github.com/git/hello-world.git
$ cd hello-world
$ (edit files)
$ git add (files)
$ git commit -m 'Explain what I changed'
		
		

175.1.8. Push

		
$ git clone git://10.10.0.5/example.git
$ cd example
$ (edit files)
$ git add (files)
$ git commit -m 'Explain what I changed'

$ git push origin master
Counting objects: 5, done.
Delta compression using up to 2 threads.
Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done.
Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 278 bytes, done.
Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
To git://10.10.0.5/example.git
   27f8417..b088cc3  master -> master
		
		

175.1.9. Pull

$ git pull
remote: Counting objects: 5, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done.
remote: Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
Unpacking objects: 100% (3/3), done.
From git://10.10.0.5/example
   27f8417..b088cc3  master     -> origin/master
Updating 27f8417..b088cc3
Fast-forward
 test1 |    1 +
 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
		

175.1.10. fetch

$ git fetch
remote: Counting objects: 3, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done.
remote: Total 2 (delta 1), reused 0 (delta 0)
Unpacking objects: 100% (2/2), done.
From git://10.10.0.5/example
   b088cc3..7e8c17d  master     -> origin/master
		

175.1.11. Creating a Patch

		
$ git clone git://github.com/git/hello-world.git
$ cd hello-world
$ (edit files)
$ git add (files)
$ git commit -m 'Explain what I changed'
$ git format-patch origin/master
		
		

175.1.12. reset

重置到上一个版本

git log
git reset --hard HEAD^
git log
git push -f