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29.5. CURL - transfer a URL

29.5.1. 基本用法

		
curl http://www.google.com/		
		
		

29.5.2. data

post 表单数据

		
curl -d "user=neo&password=chen" http://www.example.com/login.php
curl --data "user=neo&password=chen" http://www.example.com/login.php
		
		

29.5.3. 上传文件

		
curl  -F "upload=@card.txt;type=text/plain"  "http://www.example.com/upload.php"		
		
		

使用 CURL 上传 Oauth2 + Jwt 认证的 Restful 接口

		
curl -s  -H "Authorization: Bearer ${TOKEN}" -X POST -F "file=@/etc/hosts" http://localhost:8080/upload/single		
		
		

29.5.4. connect-timeout

		
curl -o /dev/null --connect-timeout 30 -m 30 -s -w %{http_code} http://www.google.com/		
		
		

29.5.5. max-time

-m, --max-time SECONDS Maximum time allowed for the transfer

			curl -o /dev/null --max-time 10 http://www.netkiller.cn/
		

29.5.6. compressed

--compressed Request compressed response (using deflate or gzip)

			curl --compressed http://www.example.com
		

29.5.7. vhosts

有时候你需要设觉察/etc/hosts文件才能访问vhost,下面例子可以不设置/etc/hosts

			curl -x 127.0.0.1:80 your.exmaple.com/index.php
		

socks5 服务器

		
$ curl -v -x socks5://username:password@IP:1080 http://www.google.com/		
		
		

29.5.8. -w, --write-out <format> 输出格式定义

			计时器 描述
			time_connect 建立到服务器的 TCP 连接所用的时间
			time_starttransfer 在发出请求之后,Web 服务器返回数据的第一个字节所用的时间
			time_total 完成请求所用的时间
			time_namelookup DNS解析时间,从请求开始到DNS解析完毕所用时间(记得关掉 Linux 的 nscd 的服务测试)
			speed_download 下载速度,单位-字节每秒。
		
			curl -o /dev/null -s -w %{time_connect}:%{time_starttransfer}:%{time_total} http://www.example.net
			curl -o /dev/null -s -w "Connect: %{time_connect}\nTransfer: %{time_starttransfer}\nTotal: %{time_total}\n" https://www.netkiller.cn/index.html

			curl -o /dev/null -s -w "Connect: %{time_connect} \nTransfer: %{time_starttransfer}\nTotal: %{time_total}\nNamelookup: %{time_namelookup}\nDownload: %{speed_download}\n" https://www.netkiller.cn/index.html
			Connect: 0.024241
			Transfer: 0.117727
			Total: 0.117842
			Namelookup: 0.004367
			Download: 129877.000
		

测试页面所花费的时间

			date ; curl -s -w 'Connect: %{time_connect} TTFB: %{time_starttransfer} Total time: %{time_total} \n' -H "Host: www.example.com" http://172.16.0.1/webapp/test.jsp ; date ;
		
			curl -o /dev/null -s -w %{time_connect}, %{time_starttransfer}, %{time_total}, %{time_namelookup}, %{speed_download} http://www.netkiller.cn
		

返回HTTP状态码

			curl -s -I http://netkiller.sourceforge.net/ | grep HTTP | awk '{print $2" "$3}'
			curl -o /dev/null -s -w %{http_code} http://netkiller.sourceforge.net/

			curl --connect-timeout 5 --max-time 60 --output /dev/null -s -w %{response_code} http://www.netkiller.cn/
		
			# curl -w '\nLookup time:\t%{time_namelookup}\nConnect time:\t%{time_connect}\nPreXfer time:\t%{time_pretransfer}\nStartXfer time:\t%{time_starttransfer}\n\nTotal time:\t%{time_total}\n' -o /dev/null -s http://www.netkiller.cn

			Lookup time: 0.125
			Connect time: 0.125
			PreXfer time: 0.125
			StartXfer time: 0.125

			Total time: 0.126
		

29.5.9. -A/--user-agent <agent string>

设置用户代理,这样web服务器会认为是其他浏览器访问

			curl -A "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.01; Windows NT 5.0)" http://www.example.com
		

29.5.10. referer

		
curl -v -o /dev/null -e "http://www.example.com" http://www.your.com/
* About to connect() to www.your.com port 80
*   Trying 172.16.1.10... connected
* Connected to www.your.com (172.16.1.10) port 80
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> User-Agent: curl/7.15.5 (x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu) libcurl/7.15.5 OpenSSL/0.9.8b zlib/1.2.3 libidn/0.6.5
> Host: www.your.com
> Accept: */*
> Referer: http://www.example.com
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Date: Thu, 30 Sep 2010 07:59:47 GMT
< Server: Apache/2.2.16 (Unix) mod_ssl/2.2.16 OpenSSL/0.9.8e-fips-rhel5 PHP/5.2.14
< Accept-Ranges: bytes
< Transfer-Encoding: chunked
< Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100  172k    0  172k    0     0  10.2M      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 11.9M* Connection #0 to host www.your.com left intact

* Closing connection #0
		
		

29.5.11. -v


		

29.5.12. -o, --output FILE Write output to <file> instead of stdout

			curl -o /dev/null http://www.example.com
			curl -o index.html http://www.example.com
		

29.5.13. -H/--header <line> Custom header to pass to server (H)

29.5.13.1. Last-Modified / If-Modified-Since

If-Modified-Since

				neo@neo-OptiPlex-780:/tmp$ curl -I http://images.example.com/test/test.html
				HTTP/1.0 200 OK
				Cache-Control: s-maxage=7200, max-age=900
				Expires: Mon, 16 May 2011 08:10:37 GMT
				Content-Type: text/html
				Accept-Ranges: bytes
				ETag: "1205579110"
				Last-Modified: Mon, 16 May 2011 06:57:39 GMT
				Content-Length: 11
				Date: Mon, 16 May 2011 07:55:37 GMT
				Server: lighttpd/1.4.26
				Age: 604
				X-Via: 1.0 ls71:80 (Cdn Cache Server V2.0), 1.0 lydx136:8105 (Cdn Cache Server V2.0)
				Connection: keep-alive

				neo@neo-OptiPlex-780:/tmp$ curl -H
				"If-Modified-Since: Fri, 12 May 2011 18:53:33 GMT" -I http://images.example.com/test/test.html
				HTTP/1.0 304 Not Modified
				Date: Mon, 16 May 2011 07:56:19 GMT
				Content-Type: text/html
				Expires: Mon, 16 May 2011 08:11:19 GMT
				Last-Modified: Mon, 16 May 2011 06:57:39 GMT
				ETag: "1205579110"
				Cache-Control: s-maxage=7200, max-age=900
				Age: 790
				X-Via: 1.0 wzdx168:8080 (Cdn Cache Server V2.0)
				Connection: keep-alive
			

29.5.13.2. ETag / If-None-Match

				neo@neo-OptiPlex-780:/tmp$ curl -I http://images.example.com/test/test.html
				HTTP/1.1 200 OK
				Cache-Control: s-maxage=7200, max-age=900
				Expires: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:48:45 GMT
				Content-Type: text/html
				Accept-Ranges: bytes
				ETag: "1984705864"
				Last-Modified: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:01:07 GMT
				Content-Length: 22
				Date: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:33:45 GMT
				Server: lighttpd/1.4.26
			
				neo@neo-OptiPlex-780:/tmp$ curl -H 'If-None-Match: "1984705864"' -I http://images.example.com/test/test.html
				HTTP/1.1 304 Not Modified
				Cache-Control: s-maxage=7200, max-age=900
				Expires: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:48:32 GMT
				Content-Type: text/html
				Accept-Ranges: bytes
				ETag: "1984705864"
				Last-Modified: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:01:07 GMT
				Date: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:33:32 GMT
				Server: lighttpd/1.4.26
			

29.5.13.3. Accept-Encoding:gzip,defalte

				$ curl -H Accept-Encoding:gzip,defalte -I http://www.example.com/product/374218.html
				HTTP/1.1 200 OK
				Date: Mon, 16 May 2011 09:13:18 GMT
				Server: Apache
				Accept-Ranges: bytes
				Content-Encoding: gzip
				Content-Length: 16660
				Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
				X-Pad: avoid browser bug
				Age: 97
				X-Via: 1.1 dg44:8888 (Cdn Cache Server V2.0)
				Connection: keep-alive
			

				$ curl -H Accept-Encoding:gzip,defalte http://www.example.com/product/374218.html | gunzip
			

29.5.13.4. HOST

				curl -H HOST:www.example.com -I http://172.16.1.10/product/374218.html
			

29.5.13.5. HTTP 认证

未认证返回401

			
# curl --compressed http://webservice.example.com/members
<html>
<head><title>401 Authorization Required</title></head>
<body bgcolor="white">
<center><h1>401 Authorization Required</h1></center>
<hr><center>nginx</center>
</body>
</html>
			
			

-u/--user <user[:password]> Set server user and password

使用 -u或者 --user 指定用户与密码

				# curl --compressed -uneo:chen http://webservice.example.com/members
			

29.5.13.6. Accept

			
-H "Accept: application/json"		
			
			

29.5.13.7. Content-Type

			
-H "Content-Type: application/json"			
			
			

29.5.14. curl-config

			curl-config --features
		

29.5.15. 指定网络接口或者地址

--interface INTERFACE Use network INTERFACE (or address)

			curl --interface 127.0.0.1 http://www.netkiller.cn
		

29.5.16.  Cookie 处理

cookie 可以从 http header 设置

			curl -LO -H "Cookie: oraclelicense=accept-securebackup-cookie" http://download.oracle.com/otn-pub/java/jdk/8u131-b11/d54c1d3a095b4ff2b6607d096fa80163/jdk-8u131-linux-x64.rpm
		

curl 还提供两个参数用于处理 cookie

			-b, --cookie STRING/FILE Read cookies from STRING/FILE (H) 读取 cookie 文件
			-c, --cookie-jar FILE Write cookies to FILE after operation (H) 将 cookie 写入文件
		
		
curl -c cookie.txt -d "user=neo&password=123456" http://www.netkiller.cn/login
curl -b cookie.txt http://www.netkiller.cn/user/profile
		
		

29.5.17. RestFul 应用 JSON 数据处理

下面提供一些使用 curl 操作 restful 的实例

GET 操作

			curl http://api.netkiller.cn/v1/withdraw/get/15.json
		

用户认证的情况

			curl http://test:123456@api.netkiller.cn/v1/withdraw/get/id/815.json
		

POST 操作

		
curl -i -H "Accept: application/json" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d '
{
"id":"B040200000000000000","name":"Neo","amount":12,"password":"12345","createdate":"2016-09-12 13:10:10"

}' https://test:123456@api.netkiller.cn/v1/withdraw/create.json
		
		

29.5.17.1. Curl Oauth2

			
URL=https://api.netkiller.cn
token=$(curl -k --cacert -s -X POST --user 'api:secret' -d 'grant_type=password&username=netkiller@msn.com&password=123456' ${URL}/oauth/token | grep -o -E '"access_token":"([0-9a-f-]+)"' | cut -d \" -f 4 )
curl -k -H "Accept: application/json" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -H "Authorization: Bearer ${token}" -X GET ${URL}/search/article/list/22/0/5.json			
			
			

29.5.17.2. Curl + Oauth2 + Jwt

获取 access_token 字符串

方法一

			
curl -s  -X POST --user 'api:secret' -d 'grant_type=password&username=netkiller@msn.com&password=123456' http://localhost:8080/oauth/token | sed 's/.*"access_token":"\([^"]*\)".*/\1/g'
			
			

方法二

			
curl -s  -X POST --user 'api:secret' -d 'grant_type=password&username=netkiller@msn.com&password=123456' http://localhost:8080/oauth/token | grep -o -E '"access_token":"(.+)"' | cut -d \" -f 4			
			
			

29.5.18. FAQ

Error in TLS handshake, trying SSLv3...

解决方案

		
curl -v --cipher rsa_rc4_128_sha https://www.mpaymall.com/MPay/MerchantPay.do