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7.3. rpm - RPM Package Manager

7.3.1. install/upgrade/remove

1.安装一个包
# rpm -ivh

2.升级一个包
# rpm -Uvh

3.删除一个包
# rpm -e
			

不检查依赖性关系

rpm -ivh --nodeps
			

强制安装

rpm -ivh --force --nodeps
			

7.3.1.1. --prefix

安装到指定目录

rpm -ivh --prefix=/opt/usr your.rpm
				

同时修改多个路径:

rpm xxx.rpm --relocate=/usr=/opt/usr --relocate=/etc=/usr/etc
				

7.3.2. query

查询一个包是否被安装

[root@database ~]# rpm -q mysql
mysql-5.0.77-3.el5
mysql-5.0.77-3.el5
			

安装的包的信息

[root@database ~]# rpm -qi nginx
Name        : nginx                        Relocations: (not relocatable)
Version     : 0.6.39                            Vendor: Fedora Project
Release     : 2.el5                         Build Date: Sat 05 Dec 2009 05:31:02 AM HKT
Install Date: Mon 28 Dec 2009 02:36:36 PM HKT      Build Host: x86-6.fedora.phx.redhat.com
Group       : System Environment/Daemons    Source RPM: nginx-0.6.39-2.el5.src.rpm
Size        : 772477                           License: BSD
Signature   : DSA/SHA1, Mon 07 Dec 2009 07:06:40 AM HKT, Key ID 119cc036217521f6
Packager    : Fedora Project
URL         : http://nginx.net/
Summary     : Robust, small and high performance http and reverse proxy server
Description :
Nginx [engine x] is an HTTP(S) server, HTTP(S) reverse proxy and IMAP/POP3
proxy server written by Igor Sysoev.

One third party module, nginx-upstream-fair, has been added.
			

列出该包中有哪些文件

[root@database ~]# rpm -ql cacti.noarch |more
/etc/cacti
/etc/cacti/db.php
/etc/cron.d/cacti
/etc/httpd/conf.d/cacti.conf
/etc/logrotate.d/cacti
/usr/share/cacti
/usr/share/cacti/about.php
/usr/share/cacti/auth_changepassword.php
/usr/share/cacti/auth_login.php
/usr/share/cacti/cdef.php
/usr/share/cacti/cmd.php
/usr/share/cacti/color.php
/usr/share/cacti/data_input.php
/usr/share/cacti/data_queries.php
/usr/share/cacti/data_sources.php
/usr/share/cacti/data_templates.php
/usr/share/cacti/gprint_presets.php
/usr/share/cacti/graph.php
/usr/share/cacti/graph_image.php
/usr/share/cacti/graph_settings.php
/usr/share/cacti/graph_templates.php
/usr/share/cacti/graph_templates_inputs.php
/usr/share/cacti/graph_templates_items.php
			

列出一个文件属于哪一个RPM包

[root@database ~]# rpm -qf /usr/bin/svn
subversion-1.4.2-4.el5_3.1
			
rpm -q --qf '%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n' \
gcc
gcc-c++

rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME} %{VENDOR}\n'
            

列出所有被安装的RPM包

[root@database ~]# rpm -qa |more
pciutils-devel-2.2.3-7.el5
rmt-0.4b41-4.el5
bsh-manual-1.3.0-9jpp.1
libgcc-4.1.2-46.el5
libICE-1.0.1-2.1
popt-1.10.2.3-18.el5
libXau-1.0.1-3.1
nspr-4.7.4-1.el5_3.1
libjpeg-6b-37
libogg-1.1.3-3.el5
libXdmcp-1.0.1-2.1
iproute-2.6.18-10.el5
libraw1394-1.3.0-1.el5
libbonobo-2.16.0-1.fc6
libavc1394-0.5.3-1.fc6
ttmkfdir-3.0.9-23.el5
cdrecord-2.01-10.7.el5
grep-2.5.1-55.el5
dmidecode-2.9-1.el5
nspr-4.7.4-1.el5_3.1
ncurses-5.5-24.20060715
libgcrypt-1.4.4-5.el5
keyutils-libs-1.2-1.el5
			

7.3.2.1. changelog 查看变更日志

查看变更日志

rpm -q --changelog openssl-1.0.1e				
				

从变更日志中找出 CVE-2014-0160 漏洞的修复情况

				
$ rpm -q --changelog openssl-1.0.1e | grep -B 1 CVE-2014-0160
* Tue Apr 08 2014 Tomáš Mráz <tmraz@redhat.com> 1.0.1e-34
- fix CVE-2014-0160 - information disclosure in TLS heartbeat extension