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知乎专栏多维度架构

5.40. Spring Boot with Prometheus

5.40.1. Maven 依赖

		
	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-webflux</artifactId>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>io.micrometer</groupId>
			<artifactId>micrometer-registry-prometheus</artifactId>
		</dependency>
	</dependencies>		
		
		

5.40.2. application.properties 配置文件

开启 metrics

		
spring.application.name=springboot-with-prometheus
#management.endpoints.web.exposure.include=*
management.endpoints.web.exposure.include=prometheus
management.metrics.tags.application=${spring.application.name}
		
		

5.40.3. 启动类

		
package cn.netkiller.welcome;

import java.net.InetAddress;
import java.net.UnknownHostException;

import org.reactivestreams.Publisher;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.actuate.autoconfigure.metrics.MeterRegistryCustomizer;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ResponseBody;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

import io.micrometer.core.instrument.MeterRegistry;
import reactor.core.publisher.Mono;

@SpringBootApplication
@RestController
public class Application {

	@GetMapping("/")
	@ResponseBody
	public Publisher<String> index() {
		return Mono.just("Hello world! \r\n");
	}

	@GetMapping("/address")
	@ResponseBody
	public Publisher<String> address() throws UnknownHostException {
		InetAddress addr = InetAddress.getLocalHost();
		return Mono.just(String.format("Address %s, Hostname %s \r\n", addr.getHostAddress(), addr.getHostName()));
	}

	@Bean
	MeterRegistryCustomizer<MeterRegistry> configurer(@Value("${spring.application.name}") String applicationName) {
		return (registry) -> registry.config().commonTags("application", applicationName);
	}

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		System.out.println("Welcome!");
		SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
	}
}		
		
		

5.40.4. 测试

启动 Springboot

		
Welcome!

  .   ____          _            __ _ _
 /\\ / ___'_ __ _ _(_)_ __  __ _ \ \ \ \
( ( )\___ | '_ | '_| | '_ \/ _` | \ \ \ \
 \\/  ___)| |_)| | | | | || (_| |  ) ) ) )
  '  |____| .__|_| |_|_| |_\__, | / / / /
 =========|_|==============|___/=/_/_/_/
 :: Spring Boot ::        (v2.3.4.RELEASE)

2020-10-28 21:57:54.110  INFO 64079 --- [           main] cn.netkiller.welcome.Application         : Starting Application on MacBook-Pro-Neo.local with PID 64079 (/Users/neo/workspace/microservice/welcome/target/classes started by neo in /Users/neo/workspace/microservice/welcome)
2020-10-28 21:57:54.114  INFO 64079 --- [           main] cn.netkiller.welcome.Application         : No active profile set, falling back to default profiles: default
2020-10-28 21:57:55.877  INFO 64079 --- [           main] o.s.b.a.e.web.EndpointLinksResolver      : Exposing 14 endpoint(s) beneath base path '/actuator'
2020-10-28 21:57:56.364  INFO 64079 --- [           main] o.s.b.web.embedded.netty.NettyWebServer  : Netty started on port(s): 8080
2020-10-28 21:57:56.380  INFO 64079 --- [           main] cn.netkiller.welcome.Application         : Started Application in 2.773 seconds (JVM running for 3.439)
		
		

获取监控数据

		
neo@MacBook-Pro-Neo ~ % curl http://localhost:8080/actuator/prometheus
# HELP jvm_threads_states_threads The current number of threads having NEW state
# TYPE jvm_threads_states_threads gauge
jvm_threads_states_threads{application="springboot-with-prometheus",state="terminated",} 0.0
jvm_threads_states_threads{application="springboot-with-prometheus",state="blocked",} 0.0
jvm_threads_states_threads{application="springboot-with-prometheus",state="waiting",} 2.0
jvm_threads_states_threads{application="springboot-with-prometheus",state="timed-waiting",} 2.0
jvm_threads_states_threads{application="springboot-with-prometheus",state="runnable",} 7.0
jvm_threads_states_threads{application="springboot-with-prometheus",state="new",} 0.0
# HELP jvm_gc_memory_allocated_bytes_total Incremented for an increase in the size of the young generation memory pool after one GC to before the next
# TYPE jvm_gc_memory_allocated_bytes_total counter
jvm_gc_memory_allocated_bytes_total{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 1.9922944E7
# HELP system_cpu_usage The "recent cpu usage" for the whole system
# TYPE system_cpu_usage gauge
system_cpu_usage{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 0.0
# HELP jvm_memory_used_bytes The amount of used memory
# TYPE jvm_memory_used_bytes gauge
jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="heap",id="G1 Old Gen",} 1.1322368E7
jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="heap",id="G1 Eden Space",} 1.6777216E7
jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="Metaspace",} 3.1712968E7
jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="heap",id="G1 Survivor Space",} 1487328.0
jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="CodeHeap 'non-nmethods'",} 1277184.0
jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="CodeHeap 'non-profiled nmethods'",} 1413760.0
jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="Compressed Class Space",} 4253200.0
jvm_memory_used_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="CodeHeap 'profiled nmethods'",} 7536256.0
# HELP jvm_memory_committed_bytes The amount of memory in bytes that is committed for the Java virtual machine to use
# TYPE jvm_memory_committed_bytes gauge
jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="heap",id="G1 Old Gen",} 2.5165824E7
jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="heap",id="G1 Eden Space",} 2.8311552E7
jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="Metaspace",} 3.3161216E7
jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="heap",id="G1 Survivor Space",} 2097152.0
jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="CodeHeap 'non-nmethods'",} 2555904.0
jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="CodeHeap 'non-profiled nmethods'",} 2555904.0
jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="Compressed Class Space",} 4849664.0
jvm_memory_committed_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="CodeHeap 'profiled nmethods'",} 7602176.0
# HELP system_load_average_1m The sum of the number of runnable entities queued to available processors and the number of runnable entities running on the available processors averaged over a period of time
# TYPE system_load_average_1m gauge
system_load_average_1m{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 2.263671875
# HELP process_files_open_files The open file descriptor count
# TYPE process_files_open_files gauge
process_files_open_files{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 89.0
# HELP jvm_classes_unloaded_classes_total The total number of classes unloaded since the Java virtual machine has started execution
# TYPE jvm_classes_unloaded_classes_total counter
jvm_classes_unloaded_classes_total{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 0.0
# HELP jvm_buffer_total_capacity_bytes An estimate of the total capacity of the buffers in this pool
# TYPE jvm_buffer_total_capacity_bytes gauge
jvm_buffer_total_capacity_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",id="direct",} 1.6777223E7
jvm_buffer_total_capacity_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",id="mapped - 'non-volatile memory'",} 0.0
jvm_buffer_total_capacity_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",id="mapped",} 0.0
# HELP jvm_gc_live_data_size_bytes Size of old generation memory pool after a full GC
# TYPE jvm_gc_live_data_size_bytes gauge
jvm_gc_live_data_size_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 0.0
# HELP jvm_gc_pause_seconds Time spent in GC pause
# TYPE jvm_gc_pause_seconds summary
jvm_gc_pause_seconds_count{action="end of minor GC",application="springboot-with-prometheus",cause="G1 Evacuation Pause",} 1.0
jvm_gc_pause_seconds_sum{action="end of minor GC",application="springboot-with-prometheus",cause="G1 Evacuation Pause",} 0.008
# HELP jvm_gc_pause_seconds_max Time spent in GC pause
# TYPE jvm_gc_pause_seconds_max gauge
jvm_gc_pause_seconds_max{action="end of minor GC",application="springboot-with-prometheus",cause="G1 Evacuation Pause",} 0.008
# HELP process_files_max_files The maximum file descriptor count
# TYPE process_files_max_files gauge
process_files_max_files{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 10240.0
# HELP jvm_threads_live_threads The current number of live threads including both daemon and non-daemon threads
# TYPE jvm_threads_live_threads gauge
jvm_threads_live_threads{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 11.0
# HELP process_start_time_seconds Start time of the process since unix epoch.
# TYPE process_start_time_seconds gauge
process_start_time_seconds{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 1.603893473057E9
# HELP jvm_classes_loaded_classes The number of classes that are currently loaded in the Java virtual machine
# TYPE jvm_classes_loaded_classes gauge
jvm_classes_loaded_classes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 6965.0
# HELP jvm_buffer_memory_used_bytes An estimate of the memory that the Java virtual machine is using for this buffer pool
# TYPE jvm_buffer_memory_used_bytes gauge
jvm_buffer_memory_used_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",id="direct",} 1.6777224E7
jvm_buffer_memory_used_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",id="mapped - 'non-volatile memory'",} 0.0
jvm_buffer_memory_used_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",id="mapped",} 0.0
# HELP process_cpu_usage The "recent cpu usage" for the Java Virtual Machine process
# TYPE process_cpu_usage gauge
process_cpu_usage{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 0.0
# HELP jvm_buffer_count_buffers An estimate of the number of buffers in the pool
# TYPE jvm_buffer_count_buffers gauge
jvm_buffer_count_buffers{application="springboot-with-prometheus",id="direct",} 4.0
jvm_buffer_count_buffers{application="springboot-with-prometheus",id="mapped - 'non-volatile memory'",} 0.0
jvm_buffer_count_buffers{application="springboot-with-prometheus",id="mapped",} 0.0
# HELP jvm_gc_max_data_size_bytes Max size of old generation memory pool
# TYPE jvm_gc_max_data_size_bytes gauge
jvm_gc_max_data_size_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 2.147483648E9
# HELP jvm_threads_peak_threads The peak live thread count since the Java virtual machine started or peak was reset
# TYPE jvm_threads_peak_threads gauge
jvm_threads_peak_threads{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 11.0
# HELP logback_events_total Number of error level events that made it to the logs
# TYPE logback_events_total counter
logback_events_total{application="springboot-with-prometheus",level="debug",} 0.0
logback_events_total{application="springboot-with-prometheus",level="trace",} 0.0
logback_events_total{application="springboot-with-prometheus",level="info",} 3.0
logback_events_total{application="springboot-with-prometheus",level="error",} 0.0
logback_events_total{application="springboot-with-prometheus",level="warn",} 0.0
# HELP jvm_gc_memory_promoted_bytes_total Count of positive increases in the size of the old generation memory pool before GC to after GC
# TYPE jvm_gc_memory_promoted_bytes_total counter
jvm_gc_memory_promoted_bytes_total{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 1924096.0
# HELP jvm_threads_daemon_threads The current number of live daemon threads
# TYPE jvm_threads_daemon_threads gauge
jvm_threads_daemon_threads{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 9.0
# HELP process_uptime_seconds The uptime of the Java virtual machine
# TYPE process_uptime_seconds gauge
process_uptime_seconds{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 35.375
# HELP jvm_memory_max_bytes The maximum amount of memory in bytes that can be used for memory management
# TYPE jvm_memory_max_bytes gauge
jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="heap",id="G1 Old Gen",} 2.147483648E9
jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="heap",id="G1 Eden Space",} -1.0
jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="Metaspace",} -1.0
jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="heap",id="G1 Survivor Space",} -1.0
jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="CodeHeap 'non-nmethods'",} 5840896.0
jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="CodeHeap 'non-profiled nmethods'",} 1.22908672E8
jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="Compressed Class Space",} 1.073741824E9
jvm_memory_max_bytes{application="springboot-with-prometheus",area="nonheap",id="CodeHeap 'profiled nmethods'",} 1.22908672E8
# HELP system_cpu_count The number of processors available to the Java virtual machine
# TYPE system_cpu_count gauge
system_cpu_count{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 8.0
		
		

5.40.5. 控制器监控

		
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/app")
public class AppController {
  private final Counter counter;
 
  public AppController(final MeterRegistry registry) {
    this.counter = registry.counter("greeting");
  }
 
  @RequestMapping("/greeting")
  public String greeting() {
    this.counter.increment();
    return "hello world #" + this.counter.count();
  }
}		
		
		

5.40.6. 自定义埋点监控

prometheus 监控指标有如下几种类型

  • Counter 类型代表数据递增的指标,即只增不减,除非监控系统重置
  • Guage 类型代表数据可以任意变化的指标,即可增可减
  • Histogram 由bucket{le=""},bucket{le="+Inf"},sum,count 组成,用于一段时间范围内对数据进行采样,并能够对其指定区间以及总数进行统计,通常它采集的数据展示为直方图。
  • Summary 由{quantile="<φ>"},sum,count 组成,用于一段时间内数据采样结果(通常是请求持续时间或响应大小),它直接存储了 quantile 数据,而不是根据统计区间计算出来的。

5.40.6.1. 拦截器

			
package cn.netkiller.welcome.config;

import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.HandlerInterceptor;

import cn.netkiller.welcome.component.RestfulApiCounter;

public class PrometheusInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {

	@Autowired
	private RestfulApiCounter restfulApiCounter;

	public PrometheusInterceptor() {

	}

	@Override
	public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler, Exception ex) throws Exception {

		restfulApiCounter.increment();
	}

}			
			
			

5.40.6.2. 计数器元件

			
package cn.netkiller.welcome.component;

import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

import io.micrometer.core.instrument.Counter;
import io.micrometer.core.instrument.MeterRegistry;

@Component
public class RestfulApiCounter {
	private final Counter counter;

	public RestfulApiCounter(MeterRegistry registry) {
		this.counter = registry.counter("restful_api_requests_total");
	}

	public void increment() {
		this.counter.increment();
	}
}
			
			
			

5.40.6.3. 配置类

			
package cn.netkiller.welcome.config;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.InterceptorRegistry;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.WebMvcConfigurer;

@Configuration
public class IntercepterConfiguration implements WebMvcConfigurer {

	@Bean
	public PrometheusInterceptor prometheusInterceptor() {

		return new PrometheusInterceptor();
	}

	@Override
	public void addInterceptors(InterceptorRegistry registry) {
		registry.addInterceptor(prometheusInterceptor()).addPathPatterns("/**");

	}
}
			
			
			

5.40.6.4. 测试埋点效果

			
neo@MacBook-Pro-Neo ~ % curl -s http://localhost:8080/actuator/prometheus | grep restful
# HELP restful_api_requests_total  
# TYPE restful_api_requests_total counter
restful_api_requests_total{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 0.0

neo@MacBook-Pro-Neo ~ % curl http://localhost:8080/
Hello world! 

neo@MacBook-Pro-Neo ~ % curl http://localhost:8080/address
Address 127.0.0.1, Hostname MacBook-Pro-Neo.local 

neo@MacBook-Pro-Neo ~ % curl -s http://localhost:8080/actuator/prometheus | grep restful
# HELP restful_api_requests_total  
# TYPE restful_api_requests_total counter
restful_api_requests_total{application="springboot-with-prometheus",} 2.0