hyperledger v1.0.5 区块链运维入门

本文作者最近在找工作,有意向致电 13113668890

Mr. Neo Chen (陈景峯), netkiller, BG7NYT


中国广东省深圳市龙华新区民治街道溪山美地
518131
+86 13113668890


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2018-02-08

摘要

你网上搜索hyperledger大部分文章是讲解开发环境的安装与配置,没有一篇关于怎样运维区块链的文章。当你配置好开发环境,写好合约,怎样落地呢?却很少文章提及。

要将区块链落地,我们必须依赖运维技术,这是IT基础设施,区块链应用将建立在这个基础设施之上,否则区块链就是浮云,悬在空中无法落地。


目录

1. 背景

由于区块链是区中心化,与传统运维不同,所以之前你积累的经验,不一定适用于区块链。要想运维好区块链项目,就必须理解去中心化这个概念。

首先谈谈传统运维,总结为三个字“中心化”,当然有人反对并抛出“分布式”感念,传统运维的分布式仍然建立在中心化的基础之上。

我们来看看传统应用模式,决多数应用都可以概括为:



用户 -> WEB -> Application -> Cache -> Database 

可以在这个体系下面做灵活变化,例如加入所有引擎、分布式文件系统,大数据等等应用,但都离不开这个模式。

区块链完全不同,如果举一个最接近的例子,我想可能与多数据中心远程异地灾备比较接近。

2. 部署拓扑

什么是区块链呢? 区块链实际上就是数据库,一个只能插入和查询的数据库,数据不能被修改和删除,并且这个数据库没有DBA管理员角色。这么一说你应该明白了把,实际上运维区块链就是在维护一个分布式数据库。

网上的绝大多数安装例子中,均采用 docker 部署方案,但无一例外的是,全部安装在一个物理机上。如果是生产环境,我们必须分开不是,首先要做的工作是化整为零,拆解应用,搞明白每个容器的功能和作用。然后我们将应用拆分,独立部署到物理节点上去。



     +---------------------------------+
     |                SDK               |
     +---------------------------------+
     | golang | nodejs | python | java |
     +---------------------------------+
                  |
                  V
       +------------------------------+
       |           fabric-ca          |
       +------------------------------+
           |                     |
           V                     V
+-------------------+   +-------------------+
| Peer            |   |  Peer             |         
+-------------------+   +-------------------+
     |          |           |        |
     V          |           |        V
+-----------+   |           |   +------------+
| Orderer   |   |           |   | Orderer    |
+-----------+   |           |   +------------+
                V           V
             +-------------------+
             |     Couchdb       |
             +-------------------+

接下来我们要做的工作是将上面拓扑图种的技术点分分击破。

由于 Hyperledger Fabric 是建立在 Docker 基础之上的。所以不建议你去除 Docker 转而使用传统的本地编译安装方式。我们仍然保持使用 Docker 在每个物理节点上,省去软件的编译和安装环节。

2.1. 依赖关系

需要注意的是于其他传统系统一样,Hyperledger Fabric 的启动也是有顺序的,这是因为他们之间存在着依赖关系。

2.2. 准备物理机

物理机
  • ca 节点,域名:ca.example.com,端口:7054

  • orderer 节点,域名 orderer.example.com,端口:7050

  • peer 节点,域名:peer.example.com,端口:7051、7053

  • couchdb 节点,域名 couchdb.example.com,端口:5984

  • tools 节点,域名:tools.example.com

3. 生成证书和创世区块

这里我们需要几个命令(configtxgen configtxlator cryptogen),官方的安装方式:

		
curl -sSL https://goo.gl/byy2Qj | bash -s 1.0.5
		
		

无论如何我都安装不成功,可能是(https://goo.gl/byy2Qj)被天朝给墙了。不过我发现 fabric-tools 里面有这个工具。

提示

经过翻墙发现 https://goo.gl/byy2Qj 地址是 301 到下面地址:

https://raw.githubusercontent.com/hyperledger/fabric/v1.0.5/scripts/bootstrap.sh

		
[root@localhost ~]# mkdir netkiller
[root@localhost ~]# cd netkiller/
[root@localhost netkiller]# mkdir -p {chaincode,crypto-config,config,artifacts}	
		
		

3.1. 创建配置文件

3.1.1. crypto-config.yaml

创建证书

				
OrdererOrgs:
  - Name: Orderer
    Domain: example.com
    Specs:
      - Hostname: orderer
PeerOrgs:
  - Name: Org1
    Domain: org1.example.com
    Template:
      Count: 1
    Users:
      Count: 1			
				
				

3.1.2. configtx.yaml

				
---
Profiles:

    OneOrgOrdererGenesis:
        Orderer:
            <<: *OrdererDefaults
            Organizations:
                - *OrdererOrg
        Consortiums:
            SampleConsortium:
                Organizations:
                    - *Org1
    OneOrgChannel:
        Consortium: SampleConsortium
        Application:
            <<: *ApplicationDefaults
            Organizations:
                - *Org1

Organizations:

    - &OrdererOrg
        Name: OrdererOrg

        ID: OrdererMSP

        MSPDir: crypto-config/ordererOrganizations/example.com/msp

    - &Org1
        Name: Org1MSP

        ID: Org1MSP

        MSPDir: crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/msp

        AnchorPeers:
            - Host: peer0.org1.example.com
              Port: 7051

Orderer: &OrdererDefaults

    OrdererType: solo

    Addresses:
        - orderer.example.com:7050

    BatchTimeout: 2s

    BatchSize:

        MaxMessageCount: 10

        AbsoluteMaxBytes: 99 MB

        PreferredMaxBytes: 512 KB

    Kafka:
        Brokers:
            - 127.0.0.1:9092

    Organizations:

Application: &ApplicationDefaults

    Organizations:
				
				

3.2. 启动 fabric-tools 容器

创建文件 docker-compose-tools.yml

			
version: '2'

networks:
  basic:

services:
  tools:
    container_name: tools 
    image: hyperledger/fabric-tools
    tty: true
    environment:
      - GOPATH=/opt/gopath
      - CORE_VM_ENDPOINT=unix:///host/var/run/docker.sock
      - CORE_LOGGING_LEVEL=DEBUG
      - CORE_PEER_ID=cli
      - CORE_PEER_ADDRESS=peer0.org1.example.com:7051
      - CORE_PEER_LOCALMSPID=Org1MSP
      - CORE_PEER_MSPCONFIGPATH=/opt/gopath/src/github.com/hyperledger/fabric/peer/crypto/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/users/Admin@org1.example.com/msp
      - CORE_CHAINCODE_KEEPALIVE=10
    # working_dir: /opt/gopath/src/github.com/hyperledger/fabric/peer
    working_dir: /root/netkiller
    command: /bin/bash
    volumes:
        - /var/run/:/host/var/run/
        - ~/netkiller:/root/netkiller
        - ./chaincode/:/opt/gopath/src/github.com/
        - ./crypto:/opt/gopath/src/github.com/hyperledger/fabric/peer/crypto/
    networks:
        - basic
			
			

3.2.1. 启动 Docker 容器

启动 Docker 容器

				
[root@localhost netkiller]# docker-compose -f docker-compose-tools.yml up -d
Creating tools
				
				

进入容器

				
[root@localhost netkiller]# docker-compose -f docker-compose-tools.yml exec tools bash
root@88e9040d2d2a:/opt/gopath/src/github.com/hyperledger/fabric/peer#				
				
				

3.2.2. 生成证书

命令

				
cryptogen generate --config=./crypto-config.yaml
				
				

演示

				
root@8f467a88de99:~/netkiller# cryptogen generate --config=./crypto-config.yaml
org1.example.com

root@8f467a88de99:~/netkiller# ls -1 crypto-config
ordererOrganizations
peerOrganizations
				
				

3.2.3. 生成创世区块

				
root@8f467a88de99:~/netkiller# export FABRIC_CFG_PATH=$PWD				
root@8f467a88de99:~/netkiller# configtxgen -profile OneOrgOrdererGenesis -outputBlock ./config/genesis.block
2018-02-08 08:35:30.121 UTC [common/configtx/tool] main -> INFO 001 Loading configuration
2018-02-08 08:35:30.236 UTC [common/configtx/tool] doOutputBlock -> INFO 002 Generating genesis block
2018-02-08 08:35:30.238 UTC [common/configtx/tool] doOutputBlock -> INFO 003 Writing genesis block			
				
				

3.2.4. 生成通道配置文件

命令

				
CHANNEL_NAME=mychannel
configtxgen -profile OneOrgChannel -outputCreateChannelTx ./config/channel.tx -channelID $CHANNEL_NAME				
				
				

操作演示

				
root@8f467a88de99:~/netkiller# CHANNEL_NAME=mychannel
root@8f467a88de99:~/netkiller# configtxgen -profile OneOrgChannel -outputCreateChannelTx ./config/channel.tx -channelID $CHANNEL_NAME 
2018-02-08 08:41:08.010 UTC [common/configtx/tool] main -> INFO 001 Loading configuration
2018-02-08 08:41:08.020 UTC [common/configtx/tool] doOutputChannelCreateTx -> INFO 002 Generating new channel configtx
2018-02-08 08:41:08.020 UTC [common/configtx/tool] doOutputChannelCreateTx -> INFO 003 Writing new channel tx				
				
				

3.2.5.  generate anchor peer transaction

命令

				
CHANNEL_NAME=mychannel
configtxgen -profile OneOrgChannel -outputAnchorPeersUpdate ./config/Org1MSPanchors.tx -channelID $CHANNEL_NAME -asOrg Org1MSP				
				
				

操作演示

				
root@8f467a88de99:~/netkiller# CHANNEL_NAME=mychannel
root@8f467a88de99:~/netkiller# configtxgen -profile OneOrgChannel -outputAnchorPeersUpdate ./config/Org1MSPanchors.tx -channelID $CHANNEL_NAME -asOrg Org1MSP
2018-02-08 08:46:19.162 UTC [common/configtx/tool] main -> INFO 001 Loading configuration
2018-02-08 08:46:19.176 UTC [common/configtx/tool] doOutputAnchorPeersUpdate -> INFO 002 Generating anchor peer update
2018-02-08 08:46:19.177 UTC [common/configtx/tool] doOutputAnchorPeersUpdate -> INFO 003 Writing anchor peer update
				
				

3.2.6. 清理 Docker 容器

至此所需的证书与创世区块都已生产完毕,fabric-tools 容易完成了它的使命,你可以继续保留或者清理干净。

				
[root@localhost netkiller]# docker-compose -f docker-compose-tools.yml down
Stopping tools ... done
Removing tools ... done
Removing network netkiller_basic
				
				

清理 tools 容器

				
docker rm -f $(docker ps -qa)
				
				

4. CouchDB 节点

整个 Hyperledger Fabric 技术栈中只有这个 CouchDB 是个外来户,看到 CouchDB 我就非常兴奋,这是一个NoSQL数据库(它与MongoDB十分类似),所以CouchDB 100%可以独立运行,且最容易分离。

CouchDB 在这里有两个方案可以选择。

  • 采用 Docker 运行 CouchDB的方案。

  • 采用传统方式物理机上本地安装 CouchDB

理论两种方案对实际结果没有什么区别,只需提供IP地址,用户名与密码供其他节点访问即可。但实际我们看到 Hyperledger Fabric 使用的镜像是 hyperledger/fabric-couchdb 不清楚是否有修改过 CouchDB 数据库。

如果你对 Docker 比较熟悉就采用 Docker 方案。如果不熟悉就采用本地安装方式。总之选择一种你能Hold住(掌控)的方案,一旦出现故障,你能第一时间排查并处理。

4.1. 安装 CouchDB

下面是 Docker 方案

			
[root@localhost netkiller]# vim docker-compose-couchdb.yml
		
version: '3'

networks:
  basic:

services:
  couchdb:
    container_name: couchdb
    image: hyperledger/fabric-couchdb
    # Populate the COUCHDB_USER and COUCHDB_PASSWORD to set an admin user and password
    # for CouchDB.  This will prevent CouchDB from operating in an "Admin Party" mode.
    environment:
      - COUCHDB_USER=admin
      - COUCHDB_PASSWORD=passw0rd
    ports:
      - 172.16.0.17:5984:5984
    networks:
      - basic
			
			

4.2. 启动 CouchDB

启动 Docker 容器

			
docker-compose -f docker-compose-couchdb.yml up -d		
			
			

访问CouchDB管理界面,http://172.16.0.17:5984/_utils/ 请使用上面设置的密码进入。若想进入到容器内部可以使用下面命令:

			
docker-compose -f docker-compose-couchdb.yml exec couchdb bash	
			
			

至此 CouchDB 节点部署完毕。

4.3. 备份与恢复 CouchDB

既然是运维区块链,对于运维工作我们最关心的就是如何备份数据,在出现故障的时候恢复数据。

			
npm install --save couchdb-backup-restore			
			
			
			
var cbr = require('couchdb-backup-restore');
 
var config = {credentials: 'http://localhost:5984'};
 
function done(err) {
  if (err) {
    return console.error(err);
  }
  console.log('all done!');
}
 
// backup 
cbr.backup(config, done).pipe(fs.createWriteStream('./db-backup.tar.gz'))

// restore 
fs.createReadStream('./db-backup.tar.gz').pipe(cbr.restore(config, done));
			
			

5. CA 节点安装

CA 节点需要我们之前生成 crypto-config

5.1. docker-compose-ca.yml

			
version: '3'

networks:
  basic:

services:
  ca.example.com:
    image: hyperledger/fabric-ca
    environment:
      - FABRIC_CA_HOME=/etc/hyperledger/fabric-ca-server
      - FABRIC_CA_SERVER_CA_NAME=ca.example.com
      - FABRIC_CA_SERVER_CA_CERTFILE=/etc/hyperledger/fabric-ca-server-config/ca.org1.example.com-cert.pem
      - FABRIC_CA_SERVER_CA_KEYFILE=/etc/hyperledger/fabric-ca-server-config/4239aa0dcd76daeeb8ba0cda701851d14504d31aad1b2ddddbac6a57365e497c_sk
    ports:
      - "XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX:7054:7054"
    command: sh -c 'fabric-ca-server start -b admin:adminpw -d'
    volumes:
      - ./crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/ca/:/etc/hyperledger/fabric-ca-server-config
    container_name: ca.example.com
    networks:
      - basic			
			
			

5.2. 启动 CA 节点

			
docker-compose -f docker-compose-ca.yaml up -d			
			
			

6. Orderer 节点安装

6.1. docker-compose-orderer.yml

			
version: '3'

networks:
  basic:

services:
  orderer.example.com:
    container_name: orderer.example.com
    image: hyperledger/fabric-orderer
    environment:
      - ORDERER_GENERAL_LOGLEVEL=debug
      - ORDERER_GENERAL_LISTENADDRESS=0.0.0.0
      - ORDERER_GENERAL_GENESISMETHOD=file
      - ORDERER_GENERAL_GENESISFILE=/etc/hyperledger/configtx/genesis.block
      - ORDERER_GENERAL_LOCALMSPID=OrdererMSP
      - ORDERER_GENERAL_LOCALMSPDIR=/etc/hyperledger/msp/orderer/msp
    working_dir: /opt/gopath/src/github.com/hyperledger/fabric/orderer
    command: orderer
    ports:
      - 7050:7050
    volumes:
        - ./config/:/etc/hyperledger/configtx
        - ./crypto-config/ordererOrganizations/example.com/orderers/orderer.example.com/:/etc/hyperledger/msp/orderer
        - ./crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/peers/peer0.org1.example.com/:/etc/hyperledger/msp/peerOrg1
    networks:
      - basic			
			
			

6.2. 启动 Orderer 节点

			
docker-compose -f docker-compose-orderer.yaml up -d			
			
			

7. Peer 节点安装

7.1. docker-compose-peer.yml

			
version: '3'

networks:
  basic:

services:

  peer0.org1.example.com:
    container_name: peer0.org1.example.com
    image: hyperledger/fabric-peer
    environment:
      - CORE_VM_ENDPOINT=unix:///host/var/run/docker.sock
      - CORE_PEER_ID=peer0.org1.example.com
      - CORE_LOGGING_PEER=debug
      - CORE_CHAINCODE_LOGGING_LEVEL=DEBUG
      - CORE_PEER_LOCALMSPID=Org1MSP
      - CORE_PEER_MSPCONFIGPATH=/etc/hyperledger/msp/peer/
      - CORE_PEER_ADDRESS=peer0.org1.example.com:7051
      # # the following setting starts chaincode containers on the same
      # # bridge network as the peers
      # # https://docs.docker.com/compose/networking/
      - CORE_VM_DOCKER_HOSTCONFIG_NETWORKMODE=${COMPOSE_PROJECT_NAME}_basic
      - CORE_LEDGER_STATE_STATEDATABASE=CouchDB
      - CORE_LEDGER_STATE_COUCHDBCONFIG_COUCHDBADDRESS=172.16.0.17:5984
      # The CORE_LEDGER_STATE_COUCHDBCONFIG_USERNAME and CORE_LEDGER_STATE_COUCHDBCONFIG_PASSWORD
      # provide the credentials for ledger to connect to CouchDB.  The username and password must
      # match the username and password set for the associated CouchDB.
      - CORE_LEDGER_STATE_COUCHDBCONFIG_USERNAME=admin
      - CORE_LEDGER_STATE_COUCHDBCONFIG_PASSWORD=passw0rd
    working_dir: /opt/gopath/src/github.com/hyperledger/fabric
    command: peer node start
    # command: peer node start --peer-chaincodedev=true
    ports:
      - 7051:7051
      - 7053:7053
    volumes:
        - /var/run/:/host/var/run/
        - ./crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/peers/peer0.org1.example.com/msp:/etc/hyperledger/msp/peer
        - ./crypto-config/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/users:/etc/hyperledger/msp/users
        - ./config:/etc/hyperledger/configtx
    #depends_on:
    #  - orderer.example.com
    #  - couchdb
    networks:
      - basic
			
			

Peer 需要连接到 CouchDB 注意配置项 CORE_LEDGER_STATE_COUCHDBCONFIG_COUCHDBADDRESS=172.16.0.17:5984

同时连接CouchDB的用户与密码要正确

7.2. 启动 Peer 节点

			
[root@localhost netkiller]# docker-compose -f docker-compose-peer.yaml up -d
			
			

7.3. 创建 Channel

进入 Peer 容器

			
docker-compose -f docker-compose-peer.yaml exec peer0.org1.example.com bash
			
			

添加 Orderer 节点并创建 Channel

			
CORE_PEER_LOCALMSPID=Org1MSP
CORE_PEER_MSPCONFIGPATH=/etc/hyperledger/msp/users/Admin@org1.example.com/msp
peer channel create -o orderer.example.com:7050 -c mychannel -f /etc/hyperledger/configtx/channel.tx			
			
			

加入到 mychannel

			
CORE_PEER_LOCALMSPID=Org1MSP
CORE_PEER_MSPCONFIGPATH=/etc/hyperledger/msp/users/Admin@org1.example.com/msp
peer channel join -b mychannel.block
			
			

查看通道

			
st t@f39764f58ff7:/opt/gopath/src/github.com/hyperledger/fabric# peer channel list
2018-02-09 08:12:46.454 UTC [msp] GetLocalMSP -> DEBU 001 Returning existing local MSP
2018-02-09 08:12:46.454 UTC [msp] GetDefaultSigningIdentity -> DEBU 002 Obtaining default signing identity
2018-02-09 08:12:46.456 UTC [channelCmd] InitCmdFactory -> INFO 003 Endorser and orderer connections initialized
2018-02-09 08:12:46.457 UTC [msp/identity] Sign -> DEBU 004 Sign: plaintext: 0A8A070A5C08031A0C08FEAFF5D30510...631A0D0A0B4765744368616E6E656C73 
2018-02-09 08:12:46.458 UTC [msp/identity] Sign -> DEBU 005 Sign: digest: E27446498819AA4FE8EE835ADEF16195489975377A3C18D89C36D37AA24E5CA2 
2018-02-09 08:12:46.469 UTC [channelCmd] list -> INFO 006 Channels peers has joined to: 
2018-02-09 08:12:46.469 UTC [channelCmd] list -> INFO 007 mychannel 
2018-02-09 08:12:46.469 UTC [main] main -> INFO 008 Exiting.....			
			
			

8. Tools 节点安装

Tools 在生成创世区块的时候我们就曾经使用,你可以沿用之前的 tools 简单,或者创建一个 cli 节点,这个节点主要是用于管理区块链集群,例如合约部署,调试等等。

8.1. 

			
version: '3'

networks:
  basic:

services:
			
  cli:
    container_name: cli
    image: hyperledger/fabric-tools
    tty: true
    environment:
      - GOPATH=/opt/gopath
      - CORE_VM_ENDPOINT=unix:///host/var/run/docker.sock
      - CORE_LOGGING_LEVEL=DEBUG
      - CORE_PEER_ID=cli
      - CORE_PEER_ADDRESS=peer0.org1.example.com:7051
      - CORE_PEER_LOCALMSPID=Org1MSP
      - CORE_PEER_MSPCONFIGPATH=/opt/gopath/src/github.com/hyperledger/fabric/peer/crypto/peerOrganizations/org1.example.com/users/Admin@org1.example.com/msp
      - CORE_CHAINCODE_KEEPALIVE=10
    working_dir: /opt/gopath/src/github.com/hyperledger/fabric/peer
    command: /bin/bash
    volumes:
        - /var/run/:/host/var/run/
        - ./chaincode/:/opt/gopath/src/github.com/
        - ./crypto-config:/opt/gopath/src/github.com/hyperledger/fabric/peer/crypto/
    networks:
        - basic
    #depends_on:
    #  - orderer.example.com
    #  - peer0.org1.example.com
    #  - couchdb	
			
			

9. 验收与测试

10. 总结