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第 26 章 Shell command

目录

26.1. Help Commands
26.1.1. man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals
26.1.1.1. manpath.config
26.1.1.2. 查看man手册位置
26.1.1.3. 指定手册位置
26.2. getconf - Query system configuration variables
26.3. test 命令
26.3.1. 判断目录
26.4. Directory and File System Related
26.4.1. dirname
26.4.2. filename
26.4.2.1. 排除扩展名
26.4.2.2. 取扩展名
26.4.3. test - check file types and compare values
26.4.4. file — determine file type
26.4.5. stat
26.4.6. mkdir - make directories
26.4.7. rename
26.4.8. touch
26.4.9. truncate
26.4.10. ls - list directory contents
26.4.10.1. full-time / time-style 定义日期时间格式
26.4.11. cp - copy files and directories
26.4.11.1. copy directories recursively
26.4.11.2. overwrite an existing file
26.4.11.3. -a, --archive same as -dR --preserve=all
26.4.12. rm - remove files or directories
26.4.12.1. -bash: /bin/rm: Argument list too long
26.4.12.2. zsh: sure you want to delete all the files in /tmp [yn]?
26.4.13. df - report file system disk space usage
26.4.14. du - estimate file space usage
26.4.15. tac - concatenate and print files in reverse
26.4.16. split - split a file into pieces
26.4.16.1. 按行分割文件
26.4.16.2. 按尺寸分割文件
26.4.17. find - search for files in a directory hierarchy
26.4.17.1. name
26.4.17.2. regex
26.4.17.3. user
26.4.17.4. perm
26.4.17.5. type
26.4.17.5.1. 分别设置文件与目录的权限
26.4.17.6. -delete
26.4.17.7. exec
26.4.17.8. 排除目录
26.4.17.9. -mmin n File's data was last modified n minutes ago.
26.4.17.10. -ctime
26.4.17.11. -mtime / -mmin
26.4.17.12. --newer
26.4.17.13. -print / -printf
26.4.17.14. -size
26.4.17.15. -path
26.4.17.16. 目录深度控制
26.4.17.17. -maxdepth
26.4.17.18. xargs
26.5. package / compress and decompress
26.5.1. tar — The GNU version of the tar archiving utility
26.5.1.1. tar examples
26.5.1.2. gunzip
26.5.1.3. b2zip
26.5.1.4. compress
26.5.1.5. .xz 文件
26.5.1.6. -t, --list
26.5.1.7. tar: Removing leading `/’ from member names
26.5.1.8. -C, --directory=DIR
26.5.1.9. --exclude
26.5.1.10. -T
26.5.1.11. 日期过滤
26.5.1.12. 保留权限
26.5.1.13. -r, --append
26.5.1.14. 远程传输
26.5.1.15. 分卷压缩
26.5.2. cpio - copy files to and from archives
26.5.3. gzip
26.5.4. zip, zipcloak, zipnote, zipsplit - package and compress (archive) files
26.5.5. bzip2, bunzip2 - a block-sorting file compressor
26.5.6. RAR
26.5.7. 7-Zip
26.5.7.1. 压缩
26.5.7.2. 浏览压缩包
26.5.7.3. 解压
26.5.7.4. Creates self extracting archive.
26.5.8. RAR
26.5.9. xz, unxz, xzcat, lzma, unlzma, lzcat - Compress or decompress .xz and .lzma files
26.6. date and time
26.6.1. 日期格式
26.6.1.1. weekday name
26.6.2. -d --date=
26.6.2.1. 日期偏移量
26.6.2.1.1. day
26.6.2.1.2. month
26.6.2.1.3. year
26.6.2.2. 时间偏移
26.6.3. 时间戳
26.6.4. RFC 2822
26.6.5. UTC
26.7. Numeric
26.7.1. 数值运算
26.7.2. seq - print a sequence of numbers
26.7.3. bc - An arbitrary precision calculator language
26.8. Text Processing
26.8.1. iconv - Convert encoding of given files from one encoding to another
26.8.1.1. cconv - A iconv based simplified-traditional chinese conversion tool
26.8.1.2. uconv - convert data from one encoding to another
26.8.2. 字符串处理命令expr
26.8.3. cat - concatenate files and print on the standard output
26.8.3.1. -s, --squeeze-blank suppress repeated empty output lines
26.8.3.2. -v, --show-nonprinting use ^ and M- notation, except for LFD and TAB
26.8.4. nl - number lines of files
26.8.5. tr - translate or delete characters
26.8.5.1. 替换字符
26.8.5.2. 英文大小写转换
26.8.5.3. [CHAR*] 和 [CHAR*REPEAT]
26.8.5.4. -s, --squeeze-repeats replace each input sequence of a repeated character that is listed in SET1 with a single occurrence of that character
26.8.5.5. -d, --delete delete characters in SET1, do not translate
26.8.6. cut - remove sections from each line of files
26.8.7. printf - format and print data
26.8.8. Free `recode' converts files between various character sets and surfaces.
26.8.9. /dev/urandom 随机字符串
26.8.10. col - filter reverse line feeds from input
26.8.11. apg - generates several random passwords
26.8.12. head/tail
26.8.13. 反转字符串或文件内容
26.8.14. TAB符号与空格处理
26.8.14.1. expand - convert tabs to spaces
26.8.14.2. unexpand - convert spaces to tabs
26.9. grep, egrep, fgrep, rgrep - print lines matching a pattern
26.9.1. 删除空行
26.9.2. -v, --invert-match
26.9.3. Output control
26.9.3.1. -o, --only-matching show only the part of a line matching PATTERN
26.9.3.1.1. IP 地址
26.9.3.1.2. UUID
26.9.3.1.3. 行列转换
26.9.3.2. 递归操作
26.9.3.3. -c, --count print only a count of matching lines per FILE
26.9.4. Context control
26.9.4.1. -A, --after-context=NUM print NUM lines of trailing context
26.9.4.2. -B, --before-context=NUM print NUM lines of leading context
26.9.4.3. -C, --context=NUM print NUM lines of output context
26.9.4.4. --color
26.9.5. Regexp selection and interpretation
26.9.5.1. .*
26.9.5.2. 2010:(13|14|15|16)
26.9.5.3. []与{}
26.9.5.4. -P, --perl-regexp Perl正则表达式
26.9.6. fgrep
26.9.7. egrep
26.10. sort - sort lines of text files
26.10.1. 对列排序
26.10.2. -s, --stable stabilize sort by disabling last-resort comparison
26.11. uniq
26.12. 表格操作/行列转换
26.12.1. column - columnate lists
26.12.2. paste - merge lines of files
26.12.3. join
26.13. standard input/output
26.13.1. xargs - build and execute command lines from standard input
26.13.1.1. 格式化
26.13.1.2. standard input
26.13.1.3. -I 替换操作
26.13.1.4. -n, --max-args=MAX-ARGS use at most MAX-ARGS arguments per command line
26.13.1.5. -t, --verbose print commands before executing them
26.13.1.6. -d, --delimiter=CHARACTER items in input stream are separated by CHARACTER, not by whitespace; disables quote and backslash processing and logical EOF processing
26.13.1.7. -0, --null items are separated by a null, not whitespace; disables quote and backslash processing and logical EOF processing
26.13.1.8. -r, --no-run-if-empty if there are no arguments, then do not run COMMAND; if this option is not given, COMMAND will be
26.13.1.9. -p, --interactive prompt before running commands
26.14. flock - manage locks from shell scripts
26.15. 进制转换 - 16进制 - 8进制 - 二进制
26.15.1. od - dump files in octal and other formats
26.15.1.1. 16进制
26.15.1.2. 使用 od 随机生成密码
26.15.2. hexdump, hd -- ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump
26.15.3. xxd - make a hexdump or do the reverse.
26.15.3.1. 指定每行的列数
26.15.3.2. 跳过字节
26.15.4. binutils
26.15.4.1. strings - print the strings of printable characters in files.
26.16. Logging
26.16.1. logger - a shell command interface to the syslog(3) system log module
26.17. Password
26.17.1. Shadow password suite configuration.
26.17.2. newusers - update and create new users in batch
26.17.3. chpasswd - update passwords in batch mode
26.17.4. sshpass - noninteractive ssh password provider
26.18. 信息摘要
26.18.1. cksum, sum -- display file checksums and block counts
26.18.2. md5sum - compute and check MD5 message digest
26.18.3.
26.19. envsubst - substitutes environment variables in shell format strings

26.1. Help Commands

26.1.1. man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals

26.1.1.1. manpath.config

cat /etc/manpath.config
			

26.1.1.2. 查看man手册位置

$ man -aw ls
/usr/share/man/man1/ls.1.gz
			

26.1.1.3. 指定手册位置

man -M /home/mysql/man mysql