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Netkiller Linux 手札

Netkiller Linux Cookbook

Mr. Neo Chan, 陈景峯(BG7NYT)



中国广东省深圳市望海路半岛城邦三期
518067
+86 13113668890


MMDVM Hotspot:

YSF80337 - CN China 1 - W24166/TG46001
BM_China_46001 - DMR Radio ID 4600441

2017-02-13

版权声明

转载请与作者联系,转载时请务必标明文章原始出处和作者信息及本声明。

http://www.netkiller.cn
http://netkiller.github.io
http://netkiller.sourceforge.net
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$Date$

内容摘要

本文档讲述Linux系统涵盖了系统管理与配置包括:

[注意]对初学Linux的爱好者忠告

玩Linux最忌reboot(重新启动)这是windows玩家坏习惯

Linux只要接上电源你就不要再想用reboot,shutdown,halt,poweroff命令,Linux系统和应用软件一般备有reload,reconfigure,restart/start/stop...不需要安装软件或配置服务器后使用reboot重新引导计算机

在Linux系统里SIGHUP信号被定义为刷新配置文件,有些程序没有提供reload参数,你可以给进程发送HUP信号,让它刷新配置文件,而不用restart.通过pkill,killall,kill 都可以发送HUP信号例如: pkill -HUP httpd

我的系列文档:

操作系统

Netkiller Linux 手札 Netkiller FreeBSD 手札 Netkiller Shell 手札
Netkiller Security 手札 Netkiller Web 手札 Netkiller Monitoring 手札
Netkiller Storage 手札 Netkiller Mail 手札 Netkiller Virtualization 手札

以下文档停止更新合并到 《Netkiller Linux 手札》

Netkiller Debian 手札 Netkiller CentOS 手札 Netkiller Multimedia 手札    

目录

1. 自述
1.1. 本文目的
1.2. 内容简介
1.3. 读者对象
1.4. 作者简介
1.5. 打赏(Donations)
1.5.1. 微信(Wechat)
1.5.2. 支付宝(Alipay)
1.5.3. PayPal Donations
1.5.4. 银行(Bank)
1. Introduction
1.1. Linux 发行版本
1.1.1. Linux 下载排名
1.1.2. Debian 衍生版本
1.1.3. Redhat 衍生版本
1.1.4. FreeBSD 包风格的Linux 发行版
1.2. HDD Partition
1.3. Getting Started Guides
1.3.1. Scientific Linux
1.3.2. Redhat Linux
1.3.3. CentOS 6
1.3.4. 5.x 减肥
1.3.5. 6.x Mini 安装后需要做的一些事
I. System Administrator
3. 获取系统信息
3.1. Distribution information
3.2. System Infomation
3.2.1. Cpu Bit
3.3. shutdown
3.4. Profile
3.4.1. shell
4. Kernel
4.1. 编译安装内核
4.2. sysctl - configure kernel parameters at runtime
4.2.1. sysctl.d
4.2.2. vm.overcommit_memory
4.2.3. TCP 拥塞控制算法
4.3. /sys
4.3.1. /sys/class/net/
4.4. /proc
4.4.1. 进程内存监控
4.4.2. ulimit 状态
5. Kernel modules
5.1. modprobe - program to add and remove modules from the Linux Kernel
6. Package Management
6.1. apt-cache
6.1.1. search
6.1.2. depends
6.1.3. policy
6.2. Apt-Get
6.2.1. Search
6.2.2. Installation
6.2.3. Update
6.2.4. Remove
6.2.5. purge
6.3. aptitude
6.4. Automatic Updates
6.4.1. 升级过程中链接中断怎么办?
6.5. dpkg
6.5.1. -i|--install 安装.deb包
6.5.2. -r|--remove 卸载.deb包
6.5.3. -L|--listfiles <package> ... List files `owned' by package(s). 列出包中的文件
6.5.4. -l|--list [<pattern> ...] List packages concisely. 列出.deb包
6.5.5. Status
6.5.6. dpkg-deb - Debian package archive (.deb) manipulation tool
6.5.6.1. -X, --vextract archive directory Extract and display the filenames contained by a package
6.5.6.2. -e, --control archive [directory] Extracts the control information files from a package archive into the specified directory.
6.5.6.3. -b, --build directory [archive|directory]
6.5.7. dpkg-reconfigure
6.6. Upgrading
6.6.1. GUI
6.6.2. CLI
6.6.3. CDROM
6.7. 制作.deb安装包
6.7.1. checkinstall — Track installation of local software, and produce a binary manageable with your package management software.
6.7.2. dh_make - prepare Debian packaging for an original source archive
6.7.3. control
7. yum - Yellowdog Updater Modified 包管理
7.1. Yum Resource & Yum Mirror
7.1.1. fastestmirror
7.1.2. Fedora resource
7.1.2.1. Fedora 5.4
7.1.2.2. Fedora 6.x
7.1.2.3. Fedora 7.x
7.1.3. rpmforge-release
7.1.3.1. CentOS 5.x
7.1.3.2. CentOS 6.x
7.1.3.3. CentALT
7.1.4. atomic
7.1.5. famillecollet
7.1.6. rpmfind.net
7.1.7. pkgs.org
7.1.8. China Resource
7.1.9. 制作本地共享源
7.2. yum - Yellowdog Updater Modified
7.2.1. YUM 源管理
7.2.2. install
7.2.3. localinstall
7.2.4. list
7.2.5. search
7.2.6. update / upgrade
7.2.7. remove
7.2.8. installed
7.2.9. group
7.2.9.1. grouplist
7.2.9.2. groupinfo
7.2.9.3. groupinstall
7.2.9.4. groupremove
7.2.10. 查看包的依赖关系
7.2.11. provides / whatprovides
7.3. rpm - RPM Package Manager
7.3.1. install/upgrade/remove
7.3.1.1. --prefix
7.3.2. query
7.3.2.1. changelog 查看变更日志
7.4. rpmbuild - Build RPM Package(s)
7.4.1. RPM_directory_macros
7.4.2. --define 专递模板变量
7.4.3. defattr
7.4.4. GPG 签名
7.4.5. 使用 CMake3 编译并创建RPM包
7.4.6. FAQ
8. Device information 设备信息
8.1. dmesg - print or control the kernel ring buffer
8.2. smartctl - Control and Monitor Utility for SMART Disks
8.3. CPU 资源管理
8.3.1. lscpu - display information about the CPU architecture
8.3.2. chcpu - configure CPUs
8.4. lspci - list all PCI devices
8.5. lshw - list hardware
8.5.1. only show a certain class of hardware
8.6. hwinfo - Hardware Information
8.7. dmidecode - DMI table decoder
8.8. ethtool - Display or change ethernet card settings
8.9. usb device
8.10. lsscsi - list SCSI devices (or hosts) and their attributes
8.11. HBA
8.12. lsblk - list block devices
8.13. kudzu - detects and configures new and/or changed hardware on a system
8.14. udev - Linux dynamic device management
9. 区域/语言/时间
9.1. Ubuntu
9.1.1. time zone
9.1.2. to change system date/time
9.1.2.1. NTP Server
9.1.3. Language
9.2. CentOS 区域设置
9.2.1. 时区设置 CentOS 6
9.2.1.1. 查看当前时区 /etc/sysconfig/clock
9.2.1.2. tzselect - select a timezone
9.2.1.3. 时区设置 CentOS 7
9.2.1.4. 修改时区并立即生效
9.2.2. 日期、时间
9.2.2.1. rdate - get the time via the network
9.2.3. 语言
10. console / terminal 控制台与终端
10.1. serial console
10.2. console timeout
10.3. TUI (Text User Interface)
10.4. framebuffer
11. Harddisk 磁盘管理
11.1. 查看分区分区 UUID
11.2. Label
11.2.1. Ext2
11.2.1.1. 查看卷标
11.2.1.2. 更改卷标
11.3. swap 交换分区
11.3.1. swapon failed: Invalid argument
11.4. Show partition
11.5. Create partition
11.6. Clone partition
11.7. estimate disk / directory / file space usage
11.8. Convert from ext3 to ext4 File system
11.9. GPT
11.9.1. 设置GTP磁盘
11.9.2. 查看分区
11.9.3. 创建分区
11.9.4. 删除分区
11.9.5. 退出
11.9.6. mount
11.10. loop devices
11.10.1. losetup - set up and control loop devices
12. Removable Storage
12.1. usb flash
12.2. CD / DVD
12.2.1. Mount an ISO file
12.2.2. create iso file from CD
12.2.3. burner
12.2.4. ISO Mirror
13. File System 文件系统
13.1. /etc/fstab
13.1.1. /etc/fstab 例子
13.2. Mount partition
13.2.1. Mount
13.2.2. Umount
13.2.3. bind directory
13.3. ext2
13.4. ext3
13.5. ReiserFS
13.6. EXT4
13.6.1. install
13.6.2. format
13.6.3. label
13.6.4. mount/umount
13.6.5. LVM 卷
13.7. LVM
13.8. Btrfs
13.8.1. /etc/fstab
13.8.2. btrfs
13.8.3. Mount Btrfs
13.8.3.1. Mount Snap
13.8.3.2. fstab
13.8.3.2.1. btrfs-show
13.8.3.2.2. /etc/fstab
13.8.4. subvolumes
13.8.5. snapshot
13.8.6. btrfsctl
13.8.6.1. Resizes the filesystem
13.8.6.2. Snapshot
13.8.7. btrfs-vol
13.8.8. btrfs-convert
13.8.9. btrfsck
13.8.10. btrfs-debug-tree
13.9. zfs
13.10. iSCSI
13.10.1. GFS
13.11. GFS - Cluster Storage
13.12. glusterfs
13.13. RAM FS
13.14. tmpfs
13.15. ftp fs
13.16. SSHFS (sshfs - filesystem client based on SSH File Transfer Protocol)
13.17. davfs2 - mount a WebDAV resource as a regular file system
13.18. redisfs
13.19. File system test
13.19.1. ext4 vs btrfs
13.19.2. xfs vs jfs vs reiserfs
13.19.3. RAID10 (146G*8) vs EMC VNX 5300 (8G Fibre Channel)
13.19.4. Dell 2950(RAID5 500G SATA * 6) vs MD1200
13.20. 磁盘占用100%删除文件后不是放的解决方法
14. Networking 网络管理
14.1. hosts
14.1.1. /etc/hostname
14.1.2. hostnamectl - Control the system hostname
14.1.3. /etc/host.conf
14.1.4. /etc/hosts
14.1.5. hosts.allow / hosts.deny
14.1.6. /etc/resolv.conf
14.2. Hostname
14.3. Network adapter 网络适配器
14.3.1. 接口名称
14.4. Ethernet Interfaces 以太网接口
14.4.1. ifquery
14.4.2. DHCP
14.4.3. Static IP
14.5. Mask 子网掩码
14.6. Gateway 设置默认网关
14.7. Configuring Name Server Lookups
14.8. IP forwarding(IP转发)
14.9. bonding
14.9.1. Ubuntu
14.10. Wireless - WiFi 配置
14.10.1. rfkill - tool for enabling and disabling wireless devices
14.10.2. iwlist - Get more detailed wireless information from a wireless interface
14.10.3. iwconfig - configure a wireless network interface
14.10.4. /proc/net/wireless
14.11. CentOS 网络配置
14.11.1. Gateway
14.11.2. bonding
14.11.3. brctl
14.12. 网络检查命令
14.12.1. ping
14.12.2. Finding optimal MTU
14.12.3. ss - another utility to investigate sockets
14.13. Linux IP And Router
14.13.1. netmask
14.13.1.1. iptab
14.13.1.2. netmask - a netmask generation and conversion program
14.13.2. arp - manipulate the system ARP cache
14.13.2.1. display hosts
14.13.2.2. delete a specified entry
14.13.2.3. /proc/net/arp
14.13.2.4. /etc/ethers
14.13.3. iproute2
14.13.3.1.
14.13.3.2. 添加路由
14.13.3.3. 删除路由
14.13.3.4. 变更路由
14.13.3.5. 替换已有的路由
14.13.3.6. 增加默认路由
14.13.3.7. cache
14.13.4. 策略路由
14.13.5. 负载均衡
14.13.6. MASQUERADE
14.13.7. ip tunnel
14.13.8. VLAN
14.13.9. Zebra
15. Logging 日志
15.1. rsyslog
15.1.1. rsyslog.conf
15.2. logrotate - rotates, compresses, and mails system logs
15.2.1. /etc/logrotate.conf
15.2.2. /etc/logrotate.d/
15.2.2.1. 日志配置
15.2.2.2. create 创建日志文件,指定用于与访问权限
15.2.2.3. postrotate
15.3. syslog-ng
15.4. syslog, klogctl - read and/or clear kernel message ring buffer; set console_loglevel
15.4.1. /etc/sysconfig/syslog
15.4.2. /etc/syslog.conf
15.4.3. logger
15.4.4. To Log Messages Over UDP Network
15.5. 挂载日志卷
15.5.1. 子卷挂载
15.5.2. 使用过个子卷
15.5.3. /etc/fstab配置
16. 服务管理
16.1. systemd, init - systemd system and service manager
16.1.1. 电源管理
16.1.2. rc.local
16.1.3. is-enabled 查看当前服务的启用状态
16.1.4. 重载 systemd
16.1.5. 列出启动失败的服务
16.1.6. list-units
16.2. 定时器单元
16.3. Debian/Ubuntu
16.3.1. update-rc.d - install and remove System-V style init script links
16.3.2. invoke-rc.d - executes System-V style init script actions
16.3.3. runlevel
16.3.4. sysv-rc-conf
16.3.5. xinetd - replacement for inetd with many enhancements
16.3.5.1. tftpd
16.3.6. Scheduled Tasks
16.3.6.1. crontab - maintain crontab files for individual users
16.3.6.2. at, batch, atq, atrm - queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution
16.3.7. sv - control and manage services monitored by runsv
16.3.7.1. runsv
16.3.7.2. runsvdir
16.4. CentOS 6
16.4.1. service
16.4.1.1. chkconfig
16.4.2. xinetd.d
16.4.2.1. tftpd
16.4.2.1.1. atftp-server
16.4.2.2. rsync
16.4.2.3. rshd
16.4.3. rpcinfo
16.4.4. SELINUX
17. Process 进程管理
17.1. top - display Linux tasks
17.2. ps - report a snapshot of the current processes
17.2.1. ps axef
17.2.2. ps -eo pid,cmd
17.2.3. ps jax
17.2.4. zombie process
17.3. mpstat
17.4. pstree - display a tree of processes
17.5. pid
17.5.1. pgrep, pkill - look up or signal processes based on name and other attributes
17.5.2. pidof -- find the process ID of a running program.
17.6. jobs
17.6.1. &
17.6.2. Ctrl + Z
17.6.3. jobs
17.6.4. fg / bg
17.6.5. nohup - run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty
17.6.6. wait 等待后台任务运行结束
17.7. ionice - get/set program io scheduling class and priority
17.8. /proc 目录与进程的关系
17.8.1. /proc/*/fd/ 进程所打开的文件
18. Permission 权限管理
18.1. User
18.1.1. Add a new user
18.1.2. remove an existed user
18.1.3. usermod - modify a user account
18.1.4. lock / unlock
18.1.4.1. /etc/passwd
18.2. Group
18.2.1. Add a new group
18.2.2. Add a user to the group
18.2.3. /etc/group
18.3. umask
18.4. Access Permissions
18.4.1. chown - change file owner and group
18.4.2. chgrp - change group ownership
18.4.3. chmod - change file access permissions
18.5. chattr - change file attributes on a Linux second extended file system
18.6. su - run a shell with substitute user and group IDs
18.7. runuser - run a command with substitute user and group ID
18.8. sudo, sudoedit - execute a command as another user
18.8.1. /etc/sudoers
18.8.2. /etc/sudoers
18.8.3. 设置示例
18.8.4. NOPASSWD
18.8.5. 允许或禁止命令
18.8.6. Cmnd_Alias 用法
18.8.7. wheel 组
18.8.8. 注意事项
18.9. ACL - Access Control List
18.9.1. getfacl - get file access control lists
18.9.2. setfacl - set file access control lists
18.9.2.1. set
18.9.2.2. default
18.9.2.3. remove
18.9.2.4. backup and restore
19. /etc
19.1. /etc/inputrc
19.2. /etc/shells
20. kickstart
20.1. install kickstart
20.2. ks.cfg
20.3. boot 参数
21. System Utilities 配置工具
21.1. nmtui - Text User Interface for controlling NetworkManager
21.2. CentOS 6
21.2.1. system-config-date
21.2.2. system-config-firewall
21.2.3. system-config-securitylevel
21.2.4. system-config-language
21.2.5. system-config-keyboard
21.2.6. system-config-network
21.2.7. ntsysv
21.2.8. lokkit
21.2.9. system-config-kdump
21.2.10. system-config-services
21.2.11. authconfig-tui
22. crontab 定时任务
22.1. /etc/crontab
II. Shell
23. Bash Shell
23.1. 快捷键
23.2. bash - GNU Bourne-Again SHell
23.2.1. -n 检查脚本是否有语法错误
23.2.2. -x 显示详细运行过程
23.3. Introduction
23.3.1. chsh - change login shell
23.3.2. 切换身份
23.3.3. test 命令
23.3.4. I/O 重定向
23.3.4.1. stdout
23.3.4.2. error 重定向
23.3.4.3. 使用块记录日志
23.3.4.4. tee - read from standard input and write to standard output and files
23.3.4.4.1. 重定向到文件
23.3.4.4.2. nettee - a network "tee" program
23.3.4.5. 创建文件
23.3.4.6. 快速清空一个文件的内容
23.3.5. pipes (FIFOs)
23.3.6. mktemp - create a temporary file or directory 临时目录与文件
23.3.7. History 命令历史记录
23.3.7.1. .bash_history
23.3.7.1.1. 格式定义
23.3.7.1.2. 设置忽略命令
23.3.7.2. .mysql_history
23.3.8. hash - hash database access method
23.3.9. prompt
23.4. variable
23.4.1. 系统变量
23.4.1.1. 命令行参数传递
23.4.1.2. $n $# $0 $?
23.4.1.3. $? 程序运行返回值
23.4.1.4. shift 移位
23.4.2. 表达式
23.4.3. Internal Environment Variables
23.4.3.1. $RANDOM 随机数
23.4.4. set 设置变量
23.4.5. unset 变量销毁
23.4.6. 设置变量默认值
23.4.7. export 设置全局变量
23.4.8. declare
23.4.9. Numerical 数值运算
23.4.10. Strings 字符串操作
23.4.10.1. ##/#
23.4.10.2. %%/%
23.4.10.3. :n1:n2
23.4.10.4. #
23.4.10.5. example
23.4.10.6. 计算字符串长度
23.4.10.7. 字符串查找替换
23.4.11. Array 数组
23.4.11.1. for 与 array
23.4.11.2. while 与 array
23.4.11.3. array 与 read
23.4.11.4. 拆分字符串并转换为数组
23.4.11.5. 数组转为字符串
23.4.12. read 赋值多个变量
23.4.13. eval
23.4.14. typeset
23.5. conditions if and case
23.5.1. if
23.5.2. case
23.6. Loops for, while and until
23.6.1. for
23.6.2. while
23.6.3. until
23.7. Functions
23.7.1. Local variables
23.8. User interfaces
23.8.1. input
23.9. subshell
23.10. Example
23.10.1. 有趣的Shell
23.10.2. backup
23.10.3. CPU 核心数
23.10.4. Password
23.10.5. processes
23.10.5.1. pid
23.10.5.2. kill
23.10.5.3. pgrep
23.10.6. Shell 技巧
23.10.6.1. 行转列,再批评
23.10.6.2. for vs while
23.10.6.3. 遍历字符串
23.10.7. to convert utf-8 from gb2312 code
23.10.8. 使用内存的百分比
23.10.9. 合并apache被cronlog分割的log文件
23.10.10. Linux 交集 差集 并集
24. Z Shell
24.1. installing Z shell
24.2. Oh My ZSH!
24.3. Starting file
24.3.1. ~/.zshrc
24.4. Prompting
24.5. Aliases
24.6. History
24.7. FAQ
24.7.1. Home/End key
25. Berkeley UNIX C shell (csh)
25.1.
26. KornShell
26.1.
27. Shell command
27.1. Help Commands
27.1.1. man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals
27.1.1.1. manpath.config
27.1.1.2. 查看man手册位置
27.1.1.3. 指定手册位置
27.2. getconf - Query system configuration variables
27.3. Directory and File System Related
27.3.1. dirname
27.3.2. filename
27.3.2.1. 排除扩展名
27.3.2.2. 取扩展名
27.3.3. test - check file types and compare values
27.3.4. file — determine file type
27.3.5. stat
27.3.6. mkdir - make directories
27.3.7. rename
27.3.8. touch
27.3.9. truncate
27.3.10. ls - list directory contents
27.3.10.1. full-time / time-style 定义日期时间格式
27.3.11. cp - copy files and directories
27.3.11.1. copy directories recursively
27.3.11.2. overwrite an existing file
27.3.11.3. -a, --archive same as -dR --preserve=all
27.3.12. rm - remove files or directories
27.3.12.1. -bash: /bin/rm: Argument list too long
27.3.12.2. zsh: sure you want to delete all the files in /tmp [yn]?
27.3.13. df - report file system disk space usage
27.3.14. du - estimate file space usage
27.3.15. tac - concatenate and print files in reverse
27.3.16. split - split a file into pieces
27.3.16.1. 按行分割文件
27.3.16.2. 按尺寸分割文件
27.3.17. find - search for files in a directory hierarchy
27.3.17.1. name
27.3.17.2. regex
27.3.17.3. user
27.3.17.4. perm
27.3.17.5. type
27.3.17.5.1. 分别设置文件与目录的权限
27.3.17.6. -delete
27.3.17.7. exec
27.3.17.8. 排除目录
27.3.17.9. -mmin n File's data was last modified n minutes ago.
27.3.17.10. -ctime
27.3.17.11. -mtime / -mmin
27.3.17.12. --newer
27.3.17.13. -print / -printf
27.3.17.14. -size
27.3.17.15. -path
27.3.17.16. 目录深度控制
27.3.17.17. -maxdepth
27.3.17.18. xargs
27.4. package / compress and decompress
27.4.1. tar — The GNU version of the tar archiving utility
27.4.1.1. tar examples
27.4.1.2. gunzip
27.4.1.3. b2zip
27.4.1.4. compress
27.4.1.5. -t, --list
27.4.1.6. tar: Removing leading `/’ from member names
27.4.1.7. -C, --directory=DIR
27.4.1.8. --exclude
27.4.1.9. -T
27.4.1.10. 日期过滤
27.4.1.11. 保留权限
27.4.1.12. -r, --append
27.4.1.13. 远程传输
27.4.1.14. 分卷压缩
27.4.2. cpio - copy files to and from archives
27.4.3. gzip
27.4.4. zip, zipcloak, zipnote, zipsplit - package and compress (archive) files
27.4.5. bzip2, bunzip2 - a block-sorting file compressor
27.4.6. RAR
27.4.7. 7-Zip
27.4.7.1. 压缩
27.4.7.2. 浏览压缩包
27.4.7.3. 解压
27.4.7.4. Creates self extracting archive.
27.4.8.
27.5. date and time
27.5.1. 日期格式
27.5.1.1. weekday name
27.5.2. -d --date=
27.5.2.1. 日期偏移量
27.5.2.1.1. day
27.5.2.1.2. month
27.5.2.1.3. year
27.5.2.2. 时间偏移
27.5.3. 时间戳
27.5.4. RFC 2822
27.5.5. UTC
27.6. Numeric
27.6.1. 数值运算
27.6.2. seq - print a sequence of numbers
27.6.3. bc - An arbitrary precision calculator language
27.7. Text Processing
27.7.1. iconv - Convert encoding of given files from one encoding to another
27.7.1.1. cconv - A iconv based simplified-traditional chinese conversion tool
27.7.1.2. uconv - convert data from one encoding to another
27.7.2. 字符串处理命令expr
27.7.3. cat - concatenate files and print on the standard output
27.7.3.1. -s, --squeeze-blank suppress repeated empty output lines
27.7.3.2. -v, --show-nonprinting use ^ and M- notation, except for LFD and TAB
27.7.4. nl - number lines of files
27.7.5. tr - translate or delete characters
27.7.5.1. 替换字符
27.7.5.2. 英文大小写转换
27.7.5.3. [CHAR*] 和 [CHAR*REPEAT]
27.7.5.4. -s, --squeeze-repeats replace each input sequence of a repeated character that is listed in SET1 with a single occurrence of that character
27.7.5.5. -d, --delete delete characters in SET1, do not translate
27.7.6. cut - remove sections from each line of files
27.7.7. printf - format and print data
27.7.8. Free `recode' converts files between various character sets and surfaces.
27.7.9. /dev/urandom 随机字符串
27.7.10. col - filter reverse line feeds from input
27.7.11. apg - generates several random passwords
27.7.12. head/tail
27.7.13. 反转字符串或文件内容
27.7.14. TAB符号与空格处理
27.7.14.1. expand - convert tabs to spaces
27.7.14.2. unexpand - convert spaces to tabs
27.8. grep, egrep, fgrep, rgrep - print lines matching a pattern
27.8.1. 删除空行
27.8.2. -v, --invert-match
27.8.3. Output control
27.8.3.1. -o, --only-matching show only the part of a line matching PATTERN
27.8.3.1.1. IP 地址
27.8.3.1.2. UUID
27.8.3.1.3. 行列转换
27.8.3.2. 递归操作
27.8.3.3. -c, --count print only a count of matching lines per FILE
27.8.4. Context control
27.8.4.1. -A, --after-context=NUM print NUM lines of trailing context
27.8.4.2. -B, --before-context=NUM print NUM lines of leading context
27.8.4.3. -C, --context=NUM print NUM lines of output context
27.8.4.4. --color
27.8.5. Regexp selection and interpretation
27.8.5.1. .*
27.8.5.2. 2010:(13|14|15|16)
27.8.5.3. []与{}
27.8.5.4. -P, --perl-regexp Perl正则表达式
27.8.6. fgrep
27.8.7. egrep
27.9. sort - sort lines of text files
27.9.1. 对列排序
27.9.2. -s, --stable stabilize sort by disabling last-resort comparison
27.10. uniq
27.11. 表格操作/行列转换
27.11.1. column - columnate lists
27.11.2. paste - merge lines of files
27.11.3. join
27.12. standard input/output
27.12.1. xargs - build and execute command lines from standard input
27.12.1.1. 格式化
27.12.1.2. standard input
27.12.1.3. -I 替换操作
27.12.1.4. -n, --max-args=MAX-ARGS use at most MAX-ARGS arguments per command line
27.12.1.5. -t, --verbose print commands before executing them
27.12.1.6. -d, --delimiter=CHARACTER items in input stream are separated by CHARACTER, not by whitespace; disables quote and backslash processing and logical EOF processing
27.12.1.7. -0, --null items are separated by a null, not whitespace; disables quote and backslash processing and logical EOF processing
27.12.1.8. -r, --no-run-if-empty if there are no arguments, then do not run COMMAND; if this option is not given, COMMAND will be
27.12.1.9. -p, --interactive prompt before running commands
27.13. flock - manage locks from shell scripts
27.14. 进制转换 - 16进制 - 8进制 - 二进制
27.14.1. od - dump files in octal and other formats
27.14.1.1. 16进制
27.14.1.2. 使用 od 随机生成密码
27.14.2. hexdump, hd -- ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump
27.14.3. xxd - make a hexdump or do the reverse.
27.14.3.1. 指定每行的列数
27.14.3.2. 跳过字节
27.14.4. binutils
27.14.4.1. strings - print the strings of printable characters in files.
27.15. Logging
27.15.1. logger - a shell command interface to the syslog(3) system log module
27.16. Password
27.16.1. Shadow password suite configuration.
27.16.2. newusers - update and create new users in batch
27.16.3. chpasswd - update passwords in batch mode
27.16.4. sshpass - noninteractive ssh password provider
27.17. 信息摘要
27.17.1. cksum, sum -- display file checksums and block counts
27.17.2. md5sum - compute and check MD5 message digest
27.17.3.
29. Utility Programs
29.1. ed, red - text editor
29.2. vim
29.2.1. 查找与替换
29.2.2. 插入文件
29.2.3. 批处理
29.2.3.1. vi 批处理
29.2.4. line()
29.2.5. set fileformat
29.3. awk
29.3.1. 处理列
29.3.2. printf
29.3.3. Pattern(字符匹配)
29.3.3.1. Pattern, Pattern
29.3.4. Built-in Variables (NR/NF)
29.3.4.1. NR
29.3.4.2. NF
29.3.4.3. 练习
29.3.4.3.1. 使用 ss 命令统计 TCP 状态
29.3.4.3.2. TCP/IP Status
29.3.4.3.3. 用户shell统计
29.3.4.3.4. access.log POST与GET统计
29.3.5. Built-in Functions
29.3.5.1. length
29.3.5.2. toupper() 转为大写字母
29.3.5.3. tolower() 转为小写字母
29.3.5.4. rand() 随机数生成
29.3.6. 过滤相同的行
29.3.7. 数组演示
29.4. sed
29.4.1. 查找与替换
29.4.1.1. 正则
29.4.1.2. aaa="bbb" 提取bbb
29.4.1.3. 首字母大写
29.4.2. insert 插入字符
29.4.3. 追加字符
29.4.4. 修改字符
29.4.5. 删除字符
29.4.5.1. delete
29.4.6. 行操作
29.4.7. 编辑文件
29.4.8. 正则表达式
29.4.9. 管道操作
29.4.10. 字母大小写转换
29.4.11. perl
29.5. CURL - transfer a URL
29.5.1. 基本用法
29.5.2. data
29.5.3. 上传文件
29.5.4. connect-timeout
29.5.5. max-time
29.5.6. compressed
29.5.7. vhosts
29.5.8. -w, --write-out <format> 输出格式定义
29.5.9. -A/--user-agent <agent string>
29.5.10. referer
29.5.11. -v
29.5.12. -o, --output FILE Write output to <file> instead of stdout
29.5.13. -H/--header <line> Custom header to pass to server (H)
29.5.13.1. Last-Modified / If-Modified-Since
29.5.13.2. ETag / If-None-Match
29.5.13.3. Accept-Encoding:gzip,defalte
29.5.13.4. HOST
29.5.13.5. HTTP 认证
29.5.13.6. Accept
29.5.13.7. Content-Type
29.5.14. curl-config
29.5.15. 指定网络接口或者地址
29.5.16. Cookie 处理
29.5.17. RestFul 应用 JSON 数据处理
29.5.17.1. Curl Oauth2
29.5.17.2. Curl + Oauth2 + Jwt
29.5.18. HTTP2
29.5.19. FAQ
29.6. expect
29.6.1. 模拟登录 telnet 获取Cisco配置
29.6.2. 模拟登录 ssh
29.6.3. SCP
29.7. expect-lite - quick and easy command line automation tool
29.8. sshpass - noninteractive ssh password provider
29.9. Klish - Kommand Line Interface Shell (the fork of clish project)
29.9.1. 安装Klish
29.9.2. 为用户指定clish作为默认Shell
29.9.3. FAQ
29.9.3.1. clish/shell/shell_expat.c:36:19: fatal error: expat.h: No such file or directory
29.10. Limited command Shell (lshell)
29.11. Wget - The non-interactive network downloader.
29.11.1. Logging and input file
29.11.1.1. -i, --input-file=FILE download URLs found in local or external FILE.
29.11.2. 下载相关参数
29.11.2.1. -O, --output-document=FILE write documents to FILE 保存到文件
29.11.3. HTTP options (HTTP 选项)
29.11.3.1. --post-data=STRING use the POST method; send STRING as the data.
29.11.3.2. header HTTP头定义
29.11.4. Recursive download
29.11.4.1. -r, --recursive specify recursive download.
29.11.4.2. -m, --mirror shortcut for -N -r -l inf --no-remove-listing.
29.11.5. --no-passive-ftp disable the "passive" transfer mode.
29.11.6. 下载一组连续的文件名
29.12. TUI
29.12.1. screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation
29.12.2. tmux — terminal multiplexer
29.12.3. byobu - wrapper script for seeding a user's byobu configuration and launching a text based window manager (either screen or tmux)
29.12.4. htop - interactive process viewer
29.12.5. elinks
29.12.6. chat
29.13. jq - Command-line JSON processor
29.14. parallel - build and execute shell command lines from standard input in parallel
30. Shell Terminal
30.1. terminal
30.1.1. resize - set TERMCAP and terminal settings to current xterm window size
30.1.2. tset, reset - terminal initialization
30.1.3. stty - change and print terminal line settings
30.2. tput
30.2.1. Change the prompt color using tput
30.3. dialog
30.3.1. --inputbox
30.4. whiptail - display dialog boxes from shell scripts
30.4.1. --msgbox
30.4.2. --infobox
30.4.3. --yesno
30.4.4. --inputbox
30.4.5. --passwordbox
30.4.6. --textbox
30.4.7. --checklist
30.4.8. --radiolist
30.4.9. --menu
30.4.10. --gauge
III. Network Application
31. Networking 网络管理
31.1. hosts
31.1.1. /etc/hostname
31.1.2. hostnamectl - Control the system hostname
31.1.3. /etc/host.conf
31.1.4. /etc/hosts
31.1.5. hosts.allow / hosts.deny
31.1.6. /etc/resolv.conf
31.2. Hostname
31.3. Network adapter 网络适配器
31.3.1. 接口名称
31.4. Ethernet Interfaces 以太网接口
31.4.1. ifquery
31.4.2. DHCP
31.4.3. Static IP
31.5. Mask 子网掩码
31.6. Gateway 设置默认网关
31.7. Configuring Name Server Lookups
31.8. IP forwarding(IP转发)
31.9. bonding
31.9.1. Ubuntu
31.10. Wireless - WiFi 配置
31.10.1. rfkill - tool for enabling and disabling wireless devices
31.10.2. iwlist - Get more detailed wireless information from a wireless interface
31.10.3. iwconfig - configure a wireless network interface
31.10.4. /proc/net/wireless
31.11. CentOS 网络配置
31.11.1. Gateway
31.11.2. bonding
31.11.3. brctl
31.12. 网络检查命令
31.12.1. ping
31.12.2. Finding optimal MTU
31.12.3. ss - another utility to investigate sockets
31.13. Linux IP And Router
31.13.1. netmask
31.13.1.1. iptab
31.13.1.2. netmask - a netmask generation and conversion program
31.13.2. arp - manipulate the system ARP cache
31.13.2.1. display hosts
31.13.2.2. delete a specified entry
31.13.2.3. /proc/net/arp
31.13.2.4. /etc/ethers
31.13.3. iproute2
31.13.3.1.
31.13.3.2. 添加路由
31.13.3.3. 删除路由
31.13.3.4. 变更路由
31.13.3.5. 替换已有的路由
31.13.3.6. 增加默认路由
31.13.3.7. cache
31.13.4. 策略路由
31.13.5. 负载均衡
31.13.6. MASQUERADE
31.13.7. ip tunnel
31.13.8. VLAN
31.13.9. Zebra
32. OpenNTPD
32.1. install
32.1.1. ntpd - Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon
32.1.2. Ubuntu
32.1.3. ntpdate
32.2. ntpdate
32.2.1. CentOS 7
32.2.2. CentOS 6
32.3. ntpd.conf / ntp.conf
32.3.1. server 配置
32.3.2. ntp 安全设置
32.4. ntpstat - show network time synchronisation status
32.5. ntpq - standard NTP query program
33. DHCP
33.1. DHCP Server
33.2. dhclient
33.3. release matching connections
34. DNS/Bind
34.1. 安装 bind9
34.2. forwarders
34.3. Load Balancing
34.4. view
34.5. Master / Slave
34.5.1. master /etc/named.conf
34.5.1.1. /var/named/example.com.zone
34.5.1.2. /var/named/example.com.zone
34.5.2. slave /etc/named.conf
34.5.3. FAQ
34.5.3.1. Master 更改后 Slave 不同步
34.5.3.2. Master 与 Slave 的 Test
34.6. DNS tools
34.6.1. dig - DNS lookup utility
34.6.1.1. any
34.6.1.2. ns
34.6.1.3. A
34.6.1.4. mx
34.6.1.5. cname
34.6.1.6. txt
34.6.1.7. -x addr 反向解析
34.6.1.8. web dig
34.6.2. nslookup - query Internet name servers interactively
34.6.2.1. 刷新 DNS 解析缓存
34.6.2.2. 查看NS记录
34.6.2.3. Mx 记录
34.6.2.4. txt
34.7. DNS
34.7.1. OpenDNS
34.7.2. Google DNS
34.8. NamedManager
35. dnsmasq
35.1. Install
35.1.1. CentOS / Redhat
35.1.2. Debian / Ubuntu
35.1.3. Firewall 设置
35.2. /etc/dnsmasq.conf
35.3. dnsmasq.resolv.conf
35.4. dnsmasq.hosts
35.5. /etc/dnsmasq.d/dnsmasq.server.conf
35.6. /etc/dnsmasq.d/dnsmasq.address.conf
35.6.1. 域名劫持
35.7. FAQ
36. rinetd — internet “redirection server”
36.1. rinetd install
36.1.1. ubuntu
36.1.2. centos
36.2. rinetd.conf
36.3. 防御脚本
36.4. rinetd.log
37. News Group (innd)
37.1. Ubuntu
37.2. CentOS
37.3. User Authentication
37.4. usenet 管理
37.5. 通过SSL连接
37.6. src.rpm 安装
37.7. 常用新闻组
38. IRC - Internet Relay Chat
38.1. IRC Protcol
38.2. IRC Commands
38.3. ircd-irc2 - The original IRCNet IRC server daemon
38.4. ircd-hybrid
38.5. IRC Client
38.5.1. Irssi - a modular IRC client for UNIX
38.5.1.1. 安装 Irssi
38.5.1.2. irssi 命令参数
38.5.1.3. network
38.5.1.4. server
38.5.2. ircII - interface to the Internet Relay Chat system
38.5.3. HydraIRC
38.5.4. XChat
38.5.5. F-IRC
38.6. Web IRC
38.6.1. QuakeNet Web IRC
38.6.2. freenode
38.6.3. Web IRC
38.6.4. hackint
39. jabber XMPP
39.1. ejabberd - Distributed, fault-tolerant Jabber/XMPP server written in Erlang
39.1.1. ejabberdctl
39.2. tigase
39.3. Openfire
39.4. DJabberd
39.5. freetalk - A console based Jabber client
39.6. library
39.6.1. python-xmpp
40. Proxy Server
40.1. Apache Proxy
40.2. Squid - Internet Object Cache (WWW proxy cache)
40.2.1. 源码安装
40.2.2. debian/ubuntu 安装
40.2.3. 配置
40.2.3.1. 正向代理
40.2.3.2. 代理服务器
40.2.3.3. Squid作为反向代理Cache服务器(Reverse Proxy)
40.2.3.4. 代理+反向代理
40.2.4. Squid 管理
40.2.4.1. squidclient
40.2.4.2. reset cache
40.2.5. 禁止页面被Cache
40.2.6. Squid 实用案例
40.2.6.1. Squid Apache/Lighttpd 在同一台服务器上
40.2.6.2. 用非 root 用户守护 Squid
40.2.7. squid+icap+clamav
40.3. Web page proxy
40.3.1. Surrogafier
40.3.2. CGIproxy
40.3.3. PHPProxy
40.3.4. BBlocked
40.3.5. Glype
40.3.6. Zelune
40.4. Socks/Socks5
40.4.1. Socks5
40.4.2. dante-server - SOCKS (v4 and v5) proxy daemon(danted)
40.4.3. SSH Socks5 Tunnel
40.4.4. hpsockd - HP SOCKS server
40.4.5. Shadowsocks - A secure socks5 proxy, designed to protect your Internet traffic.
40.4.5.1. Server
40.4.5.1.1. Python PyPI
40.4.5.1.2. GitHub
40.4.5.2. ssserver 命令
40.4.5.3. Client
40.4.5.3.1. Shadowsocks for Windows
41. Firewall
41.1. TCP/IP 相关内核配置项
41.1.1. net.ipv4.ip_forward
41.1.2. net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_all
41.2. iptables - administration tools for packet filtering and NAT
41.2.1. Getting Started
41.2.1.1. CentOS/Redhat TUI 工具
41.2.2. 用户自定义规则连
41.2.2.1. Chains List
41.2.2.2. Chains Refresh
41.2.2.3. Chains Admin
41.2.2.4. 重置
41.2.3. Protocols 协议
41.2.4. Interfaces 网络适配器接口
41.2.5. 源IP地址
41.2.6. Ports 端口
41.2.6.1. range
41.2.6.2. multiport
41.2.7. NAT
41.2.7.1. Redirect
41.2.7.2. Postrouting and IP Masquerading
41.2.7.3. Prerouting
41.2.7.4. DNAT and SNAT
41.2.7.5. DMZ zone
41.2.8. Module(模块)
41.2.8.1. IPTables and Connection Tracking
41.2.8.2. string
41.2.8.3. connlimit
41.2.8.4. recent
41.2.8.5. limit
41.2.8.6. nth
41.2.8.6.1. DNAT
41.2.8.6.2. SNAT
41.2.8.7. random 模块
41.2.9. IPV6
41.2.10. iptables-xml - Convert iptables-save format to XML
41.2.11. access.log IP封锁脚本
41.2.12. Example
41.2.12.1. INPUT Rule Chains
41.2.12.1.1. OpenSSH
41.2.12.1.2. FTP
41.2.12.1.3. DNS
41.2.12.1.4. WWW
41.2.12.1.5. SOCKS5
41.2.12.1.6. Mail Server
41.2.12.1.7. MySQL
41.2.12.1.8. PostgreSQL
41.2.12.1.9. DHCP
41.2.12.1.10. Samba
41.2.12.1.11. ICMP
41.2.12.1.12. 禁止IP访问自己
41.2.12.1.13. DENY
41.2.12.2. OUTPUT Rule Chains
41.2.12.2.1. outbound
41.2.12.2.2. ICMP
41.2.12.2.3. NFS
41.2.12.2.4. SSH
41.2.12.2.5. 禁止自己访问某个IP
41.2.12.3. Forward
41.2.12.3.1. TCPMSS
41.2.12.4. Malicious Software and Spoofed IP Addresses
41.2.12.5. /etc/sysconfig/iptables 操作系统默认配置
41.3. ulogd - The Netfilter Userspace Logging Daemon
41.4. ufw - program for managing a netfilter firewall
41.4.1. /etc/default/ufw
41.4.2. ip_forward
41.4.3. DHCP
41.4.4. Samba
41.5. Firewalld
41.5.1. firewalld
41.5.1.1. firewall-cmd
41.5.2. 如果你不习惯使用firewalld想用回Iptables
41.6. Shorewall
41.6.1. Installation Instructions
41.6.1.1. Install using RPM
41.6.1.2. Install using apt-get
41.6.2. Configuring Shorewall
41.6.2.1. zones
41.6.2.2. policy
41.6.2.3. interfaces
41.6.2.4. masq
41.6.2.5. rules
41.6.2.6. params
41.7. Firewall GUI Tools
41.8. Endian Firewall
41.9. Smooth Firewall
41.10. Sphirewall
42. Stunnel - universal SSL tunnel
43. OpenSSH
43.1. 安装 OpenSSH
43.2. /etc/ssh/
43.2.1. sshd_config
43.2.1.1. Authentication 配置
43.2.1.2. Automatic SSH / SSH without password
43.2.1.3. disable password authentication
43.2.1.4. GSSAPI options
43.2.1.5. 忽略known_hosts文件
43.2.1.6. UseDNS no
43.2.2. ssh_config
43.2.2.1. ForwardAgent
43.2.3. ~/.ssh/config
43.3. ssh client
43.3.1. -o option 参数详解
43.4. OpenSSH Tunnel
43.4.1. SOCKS v5 Tunnel
43.5. ssh-keygen — authentication key generation, management and conversion
43.5.1. .ssh/known_hosts
43.6. ssh-keyscan
43.7. ssh-copy-id - install your public key in a remote machine's authorized_keys
43.8. ssh-agent
43.8.1. ssh-add
43.8.2. Lock / Unlock agent
43.8.3. Set lifetime (in seconds) when adding identities.
43.9. OpenSSH for Windows
43.9.1. Putty Client
43.10. Google Authenticator - Android Apps on Google Play
43.11. FAQ
43.11.1. Pseudo-terminal will not be allocated because stdin is not a terminal.
43.11.2. 去掉 passphrase
43.11.3. 打印调试信息
44. VPN (Virtual Private Network)
44.1. OpenVPN (openvpn - Virtual Private Network daemon)
44.1.1. 安装 OpenVPN Server
44.1.1.1. 源码安装
44.1.1.2. Ubuntu
44.1.1.2.1. create keys for the server
44.1.1.2.2. create keys for the clients
44.1.1.3. CentOS
44.1.2. Easy-RSA 3
44.1.2.1. 吊销用户证书
44.1.2.2. 导出 PKCS 7/PKCS 12 证书
44.1.2.3. 查看请求文件
44.1.2.4. 查看证书
44.1.2.5. 导入 req 文件
44.1.2.6. 更新数据库
44.1.2.7. Easy-RSA 2 吊销(revoke)用户证书
44.1.3. Openvpn Client
44.1.4. OpenVPN GUI for Windows
44.1.4.1. Windows Server
44.1.4.2. Windows Client
44.1.4.2.1. 客户端路由设置
44.1.5. point-to-point VPNs
44.1.6. VPN 案例
44.1.6.1. server and client vpn
44.1.6.2. Ethernet Bridging Example
44.1.6.3. IDC Example
44.1.7. OpenVPN安全
44.2. pptpd
44.2.1. Server 服务端
44.2.2. Client 客户端
44.2.2.1. 创建账号
44.2.2.2. 内核模块安装
44.2.2.3. 拨入VPN
44.2.2.4. 路由配置
44.2.2.4.1. 自动配置路由
44.2.2.4.2. 手工配置路由
44.2.3. FAQ
44.2.3.1. 800 错误
44.2.3.2. 测试 PPTP 端口
44.2.3.3. debug
44.3. l2tpd - dummy package for l2tpd to xl2tpd transition
44.4. strongswan - IPSec utilities for strongSwan
44.4.1. 安装 strongswan VPN 服务器
44.4.2. 防火墙配置
44.4.3. 配置 IPSEC
44.4.4. Windows 10 VPN 客户端配置
44.4.5. FAQ
44.4.5.1. 查看证书信息
44.5. openswan - IPSEC utilities for Openswan
44.6. Ipsec VPN
44.6.1. ipsec-tools - IPsec tools for Linux
44.7. N2N VPN
44.8. Hypersocket VPN
45. Point to Point
45.1. download
45.1.1. rtorrent - ncurses BitTorrent client based on LibTorrent
45.1.2. mldonkey-server - Door to the 'donkey' network
45.1.3. amule - client for the eD2k and Kad networks, like eMule
IV. Web Application
46. Nginx
46.1. Installing
46.1.1. Netkiller OSCM 一键安装 (CentOS 7)
46.1.2. Installing by apt-get under the debain/ubuntu
46.1.3. CentOS
46.1.3.1. spawn-fcgi script
46.1.3.2. php-fpm
46.1.3.3. fastcgi backend
46.1.4. installing by source
46.1.5. CentOS 7
46.1.6. Mac
46.1.6.1. php-fpm
46.1.7. rotate log
46.1.7.1. log shell
46.1.7.2. /etc/logrotate.d/nginx
46.2. Nginx 命令
46.2.1. -V show version and configure options then exit
46.2.2. -t : test configuration and exit
46.2.3. test configuration, dump it and exit
46.3. nginx.conf 配置文件
46.3.1. 处理器配置
46.3.2. events 配置
46.3.3. http 配置
46.3.3.1. 缓冲区相关设置
46.3.3.2. 超时设置
46.3.3.3. gzip
46.3.3.3.1. CDN支持
46.3.3.4. server_tokens
46.3.3.5. ssi
46.3.4. Nginx 变量
46.3.4.1. $host
46.3.4.2. http_user_agent
46.3.4.2.1. 禁止非浏览器访问
46.3.4.2.2. http_user_agent 没有设置不允许访问
46.3.4.3. http_referer
46.3.4.3.1. valid_referers/invalid_referer
46.3.4.4. request_filename
46.3.4.5. request_uri
46.3.4.6. remote_addr
46.3.4.7. http_cookie
46.3.4.8. request_method
46.3.4.9. limit_except
46.3.4.10. invalid_referer
46.3.4.11. $request_body - HTTP POST 数据
46.3.4.11.1. 用户日志
46.3.4.11.2. $request_body 用于缓存
46.3.4.12. 自定义变量
46.3.4.13. if 条件判断
46.3.5. server
46.3.5.1. listen
46.3.5.2. 单域名虚拟主机
46.3.5.3. ssl 虚拟主机
46.3.5.4. server_name 配置
46.3.5.5. location
46.3.5.5.1. 禁止访问特定目录
46.3.5.5.2. 引用document_root之外的资源
46.3.5.5.3. 处理扩展名
46.3.5.5.4. location 中关闭日志
46.3.5.6. root 通过$host智能匹配目录
46.3.5.7. expires
46.3.5.7.1. 通过 add_header / more_set_headers 设置缓存
46.3.5.7.2. $request_uri
46.3.5.7.3. $request_filename
46.3.5.8. access
46.3.5.9. autoindex
46.3.5.10. try_files
46.3.5.11. add_header
46.3.5.11.1. Cache
46.3.5.11.2. Access-Control-Allow
46.3.5.12. client_max_body_size 上传文件尺寸限制
46.3.5.13. return
46.3.6. rewrite
46.3.6.1. 处理泛解析
46.3.6.2. 处理扩展名
46.3.6.3. http get 参数处理
46.3.6.4. 正则取非
46.3.6.5. 去掉扩展名
46.3.6.6. 添加扩展名
46.3.7. HTTP2 配置 SSL证书
46.3.7.1. 自颁发证书
46.3.7.2. spdy
46.3.7.3. HTTP2
46.3.7.4. 用户访问 HTTP时强制跳转到 HTTPS
46.3.7.5. SSL 双向认证
46.3.7.5.1. 生成证书
46.3.7.5.1.1. CA
46.3.7.5.1.2. 服务器端
46.3.7.5.1.3. 客户端
46.3.7.5.1.4. 浏览器证书
46.3.7.5.1.5. SOAP 证书
46.3.7.5.1.6. 过程演示
46.3.7.5.2. Nginx 配置
46.3.7.5.3. 测试双向认证
46.3.8. upstream 负载均衡
46.3.8.1. weight 权重配置
46.3.8.2. backup 实现热备
46.3.9. Proxy
46.3.9.1. proxy_cache
46.3.9.2. rewrite + proxy_pass
46.3.9.3. request_filename + proxy_pass
46.3.9.4. $request_uri 与 proxy_pass 联合使用
46.3.9.5. try_files 与 proxy_pass 共用
46.3.9.6. Proxy 与 SSI
46.3.9.7. Host
46.3.9.8. expires
46.3.9.9. X-Forwarded-For
46.3.9.10. X-Sendfile
46.3.9.11. proxy_http_version
46.3.9.12. proxy_set_header
46.3.9.13. proxy_pass_request_headers 透传 Header
46.3.9.14. timeout 超时时间
46.3.9.15. example
46.3.9.15.1. 代理特定目录
46.3.9.15.2. upstream 实例
46.3.9.15.3. Tomcat 实例
46.3.9.15.4. Nginx -> Nginx -> Tomcat
46.3.9.15.5. Proxy 处理 Cookie
46.3.9.15.6. Proxy 添加 CORS 头
46.3.9.15.7. 通过 Proxy 汉化 restful 接口
46.3.9.15.8. HTTP2 proxy_pass http://
46.3.9.15.9. IPFS
46.3.10. fastcgi
46.3.10.1. spawn-fcgi
46.3.10.2. php-fpm
46.3.10.2.1. php5-fpm
46.3.10.2.2. 编译 php-fpm
46.3.10.2.2.1. php-fpm 状态
46.3.10.2.3. fastcgi_pass
46.3.10.2.4. nginx example
46.4. Nginx module
46.4.1. stub_status
46.4.2. sub_filter 页面中查找和替换
46.4.3. auth_basic
46.4.3.1. 使用 htpasswd 生几个密码文件
46.4.3.2. 使用 openssl 生成密码
46.4.4. valid_referers
46.4.5. ngx_http_flv_module
46.4.6. ngx_http_mp4_module
46.4.7. limit_zone
46.4.8. image_filter
46.4.9. ngx_stream_proxy_module
46.4.10. ngx_http_mirror_module
46.4.11. limit_except
46.4.12. geoip_country_code
46.5. Example
46.5.1. Nginx + Tomcat
46.5.2. 拦截index.html
46.5.3. Session 的 Cookie 域处理
46.6. FAQ
46.6.1. 405 Not Allowed?
46.6.2. 502 Bad Gateway?
46.6.3. 413 Request Entity Too Large
46.6.4. 502 Bad Gateway?
46.6.5. 499 Client Closed Request
46.6.6. proxy_pass
46.6.7. proxy_pass SESSION 丢失问题
46.6.8. [alert] 55785#0: *11449 socket() failed (24: Too many open files) while connecting to upstream
46.6.9. server_name 与 SSI 注意事项
46.6.10. location 跨 document_root 引用,引用 document_root 之外的资源
46.6.11. nginx: [warn] duplicate MIME type "text/html" in /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
46.6.12. 127.0.0.1:8080 failed
47. Apache Tomcat
47.1. Tomcat 安装与配置
47.1.1. Tomcat 6
47.1.1.1. tomcat-native
47.1.1.2. 启动脚本
47.1.2. Tomcat 7
47.1.2.1. Server JRE
47.1.2.2. Tomcat
47.1.3. Java 8 + Tomcat 8
47.1.3.1. systemctl 启动脚本
47.1.3.2. Session 共享
47.1.3.2.1. test session
47.1.4. 防火墙配置
47.1.5. 同时运行多实例
47.1.6. Testing file
47.1.7. mod_jk
47.1.8. mod_proxy_ajp
47.1.9. RewriteEngine 连接 Tomcat
47.1.10. SSL 双向认证
47.2. 配置 Tomcat 服务器
47.2.1. server.xml
47.2.1.1. Connector
47.2.1.1.1. HTTPS
47.2.1.1.2. compression
47.2.1.1.3. useBodyEncodingForURI
47.2.1.1.4. 隐藏Tomcat版本信息
47.2.1.2. Context
47.2.1.2.1. 应用程序安全
47.2.1.2.2. JSESSIONID
47.2.2. tomcat-users.xml
47.2.3. context.xml
47.2.3.1. Resources
47.2.3.2. session cookie
47.2.4. logging.properties
47.2.5. catalina.properties
47.3. 虚拟主机配置
47.3.1. 方案一
47.3.2. 方案二
47.3.3. Alias 别名
47.3.4. access_log
47.3.5. Context 配置
47.3.6. 主机绑定IP地址
47.4. SSI
47.5. Logging 日志
47.5.1. 开启 debug 模式
47.5.2. 切割 catalina.out 日志
47.6. Init.d Script
47.6.1. Script 1
47.6.2. Shell Script 2
48. Apache httpd
48.1. Install
48.1.1. Quick install apache with aptitude
48.1.1.1. command
48.1.1.2. rewrite module
48.1.1.3. PHP module
48.1.1.4. deflate module
48.1.1.5. ssl module
48.1.1.6. VirtualHost
48.1.1.7. ~userdir module - /public_html
48.1.1.8. PHP 5
48.1.2. CentOS 6
48.1.2.1. Install
48.1.2.2. Uninstall
48.1.2.3. Configure
48.1.2.3.1. Apache
48.1.2.3.1.1. VirtualHost
48.1.2.3.2. MySQL
48.1.2.4. Starting
48.1.2.5. FAQ
48.1.2.5.1. compile php
48.1.3. Compile and then install Apache
48.1.3.1. Apache 安装与配置
48.1.3.2. 优化编译条件
48.1.3.3. PHP
48.1.3.4. Automation Installing
48.1.4. XAMPP
48.1.4.1. XAMPP for Linux
48.1.4.2. php5
48.2. Module
48.2.1. Output a list of modules compiled into the server.
48.2.2. Core
48.2.2.1. Listen
48.2.2.2. Filesystem and Webspace
48.2.2.2.1. Options
48.2.2.3. Etag
48.2.2.4. 隐藏 Apache 版本信息
48.2.3. mpm
48.2.3.1. event
48.2.3.2. worker
48.2.4. Apache Log
48.2.4.1. LogLevel
48.2.4.2. LogFormat
48.2.4.3. Compressed
48.2.4.4. rotatelogs - Piped logging program to rotate Apache logs
48.2.4.5. cronolog
48.2.4.6. 日志合并
48.2.4.7. 日志归档
48.2.4.8. logger
48.2.4.9. other
48.2.5. mod_access
48.2.6. VirtualHost
48.2.6.1. ServerName/ServerAlias
48.2.6.2. rotatelogs
48.2.7. Alias / AliasMatch
48.2.8. Redirect / RedirectMatch
48.2.9. Rewrite
48.2.9.1. R=301
48.2.9.2. Rewrite + JkMount
48.2.9.3. Apache redirect domain.com to www.domain.com
48.2.9.4. 正则匹配扩展名
48.2.10. Proxy
48.2.10.1. Reverse proxy
48.2.11. Deflate
48.2.11.1. 测试 gzip,deflate 模块
48.2.12. Expires
48.2.12.1. FilesMatch
48.2.12.2. Cache-Control
48.2.12.3. ETag
48.2.13. Cache
48.2.13.1. mod_disk_cache
48.2.13.2. mod_mem_cache
48.2.14. usertrack
48.2.15. Charset
48.2.16. Dir
48.2.17. Includes
48.2.18. Apache Status
48.2.19. Mod Perl
48.2.20. mod_pagespeed -
48.2.21. Module FAQ
48.2.22. mod_setenvif
48.2.23. PHP 程序安全问题 php_admin_value
48.2.24. mod_spdy
48.3. 设置Apache实现防盗连
48.4. .htaccess
48.5. Error Prompt
48.5.1. Invalid command 'Order', perhaps misspelled or defined by a module not included in the server configuration
48.5.2. Invalid command 'AuthUserFile', perhaps misspelled or defined by a module not included in the server configuration
49. Lighttpd
49.1. 安装Lighttpd
49.1.1. quick install with aptitude
49.1.2. yum install
49.1.3. to compile and then install lighttpd
49.1.3.1. shell script
49.2. /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf
49.2.1. max-worker / max-fds
49.2.2. accesslog.filename
49.2.3. ETags
49.2.4. server.tag
49.3. Module
49.3.1. simple_vhost
49.3.2. ssl
49.3.3. redirect
49.3.4. rewrite
49.3.4.1. Lighttpd Rewrite QSA
49.3.5. alias
49.3.6. auth
49.3.7. compress
49.3.8. expire
49.3.9. status
49.3.10. setenv
49.3.10.1. Automatic Decompression
49.3.11. fastcgi
49.3.11.1. enable fastcgi
49.3.11.1.1. spawn-fcgi
49.3.11.1.2. php-fpm
49.3.11.2. PHP
49.3.11.2.1. 编译安装PHP
49.3.11.2.2. apt-get install
49.3.11.3. Python
49.3.11.3.1. Django
49.3.11.3.2. Python Imaging Library
49.3.11.4. Perl
49.3.11.4.1. Installing lighttpd and FastCGI for Catalyst
49.3.11.5. Ruby
49.3.11.6. UNIX domain sockets
49.3.12. user-agent
49.3.13. spdy
49.4. 其他模块
49.4.1. mod_secdownload 防盗链
49.5. Example
49.5.1. s-maxage
50. Resin
50.1. 安装Resin
50.1.1. 直接使用
50.1.2. Debian/Ubuntu
50.1.3. 源码安装Resin
50.2. Compiling mod_caucho.so
50.3. resin.conf
50.3.1. Maximum number of threads
50.3.2. Configures the keepalive
50.3.3. ssl
50.4. virtual hosts
50.4.1. explicit host
50.4.2. regexp host
50.4.3. host-alias
50.4.4. configures a deployment directory for virtual hosts
50.4.5. Resources
50.5. FAQ
50.5.1. java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: PermGen space
51. Application Server
51.1. Zope
51.2. JBoss - JBoss Enterprise Middleware
52. Web Server Optimization
52.1. ulimit
52.1.1. open files
52.2. khttpd
52.3. php.ini
52.3.1. Resource Limits
52.3.2. File Uploads
52.3.3. Session Shared
52.3.4. PATHINFO
52.4. APC Cache (php-apc - APC (Alternative PHP Cache) module for PHP 5)
52.5. Zend Optimizer
52.6. eaccelerator
53. varnish - a state-of-the-art, high-performance HTTP accelerator
53.1. Varnish Install
53.2. varnish utility
53.2.1. status
53.2.2. varnishadm
53.2.2.1. 清除缓存
53.2.3. varnishtop
53.2.4. varnishhist
53.2.5. varnishsizes
53.3. log file
53.4. Varnish Configuration Language - VCL
53.4.1. unset / set
53.5. example
54. Apache Traffic Server
54.1. Install
54.2. Configure
55. Cherokee
55.1. Installing Cherokee
56. Jetty
57. Other Web Server
57.1. Python SimpleHTTPServer
58. web 服务器排名
58.1. HTTP状态码
59. HTTP2
59.1. Chrome
V. Mail Server
60. Mail server constituent
61. mail user agent (MUA)
61.1. mail
61.2. mutt - text-based mailreader supporting MIME, GPG, PGP and threading
61.2.1. 发送邮件
61.2.2. 设置自定义 From
61.3. alpine - Text-based email client, friendly for novices but powerful
61.4. fetchmail - SSL enabled POP3, APOP, IMAP mail gatherer/forwarder
61.5. GPG4WIN
61.6. Evolution
62. exim - meta-package to ease Exim MTA (v4) installation
62.1. install
62.1.1. ubuntu/debian
62.1.1.1. configure
62.1.2. CentOS/Redhat
62.2. exim 命令
62.2.1. 帮助信息
62.2.2. 测试发送邮件
62.2.3. 刷新邮件队列
62.3. 配置exim
62.3.1. /etc/aliases 别名配置
62.4. FAQ
62.4.1. Mailing to remote domains not supported
63. postfix - High-performance mail transport agent
63.1. install
63.1.1. Ubuntu
63.1.2. CentOS
63.1.3. OSCM 通过配置管理脚本安装
63.2. 配置 Postfix
63.2.1. 转发配置
63.2.2. 拒收垃圾邮件
63.2.3. 收件箱配置
63.2.3.1. Mailbox 配置
63.2.3.2. Maildir 配置
63.2.3.3. 传统Unix风格邮箱配置
63.2.4. 邮件投递
63.2.5. 队列配置
63.2.6. 客户端
63.3. aliases
63.4. dkim
63.4.1. 增加域名
63.4.2. 测试
63.5. Rspamd
63.6. /var/log/maillog
63.6.1. 计算每分钟发送数量日志统计
63.6.2. 虚假地址统计
63.7. Post 命令
63.7.1. postconf - Postfix configuration utility
63.7.2. postsuper
63.7.3. postqueue - Postfix queue control
63.7.3.1. 列出队列
63.7.3.2. 刷新队列
63.7.4. postmulti - Postfix multi-instance manager
63.7.4.1. 绑定IP地址
63.7.4.2. postfix 多实例配置
63.7.4.3. 配置 iptables 让SMTPD发送邮件时依次轮询外发IP地址,这样就不会被封锁。
63.8. Example
63.8.1. 站内电邮发送
63.8.2. EDM 服务器
63.9. FAQ
63.9.1. SMTP ERROR: RCPT TO command failed: 501 5.1.3 Bad recipient address syntax
63.9.2. connect to gmail-smtp-in.l.google.com[2607:f8b0:400e:c00::1a]:25: Network is unreachable
63.9.3. opendkim[5762]: 3012A802C1DD: [49.213.11.18] [49.213.11.18] not internal
63.9.4. opendkim[12578]: 4CC5C802C382: no signature data
63.9.5. /etc/opendkim/keys/default.private: open(): No such file or directory
63.9.6. fatal: parameter inet_interfaces: no local interface found for ::1
64. 邮件原文
64.1. Subject Unicode
64.2. TO/CC/BCC
64.3. 正文
64.4. POP Sniffer
64.5. PHP mail()
65. 反垃圾邮件相关
65.1. Sender Policy Framework
65.1.1. 分析 SPF 记录
65.2. DKIM
65.3. 邮件被拒收处理方法
65.3.1. NetEase
65.3.2. Sohu
65.3.3. Tom
65.3.4. QQ
65.3.5. 21CN
66. Fax
66.1. HylaFAX
67. FAQ
67.1. 通过SSH与控制台不能登录
VI. Backup, Recovery, and Archiving Solutions
68. Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
68.1. 物理卷管理(physical volume)
68.1.1. pvcreate
68.1.2. pvdisplay
68.1.3. pvs
68.2. 卷组管理(Volume Group)
68.2.1. vgcreate
68.2.2. vgdisplay
68.2.3. vgs
68.2.4. vgchange
68.2.5. vgextend
68.2.6. vgreduce
68.3. 逻辑卷管理(logical volume)
68.3.1. lvcreate
68.3.1.1. snapshot
68.3.2. lvdisplay
68.3.3. lvremove
68.3.3.1. snapshot
68.4. Format
68.5. mount
68.5.1. lv
68.5.2. snapshot
68.6. snapshot backup
69. 文件传输
69.1. 跨服务器文件传输
69.1.1. scp - secure copy (remote file copy program)
69.1.2. nc - TCP/IP swiss army knife
69.2. wget - retrieves files from the web
69.2.1. 下载所有图片
69.2.2. mirror
69.2.3. reject
69.2.4. ftp 下载
69.3. axel - A light download accelerator - Console version
70. FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
70.1. lftp
70.1.1. pget
70.1.2. lftp 批处理
70.2. ncftp
70.2.1. batch command
70.2.2. ncftpget
70.2.3. ncftpput
70.3. FileZilla
70.4. vsftpd - The Very Secure FTP Daemon
70.4.1. 安装 vsftpd
70.4.1.1. Ubuntu 环境安装
70.4.1.2. CentOS 7 环境安装
70.4.2. ftp 帐号的shell权限
70.4.3. vsftpd 认证模块
70.4.3.1. pam_shells.so
70.4.3.2. virtual user
70.4.3.3. 虚拟用户权限
70.4.4. chroot
70.4.4.1. local user
70.4.4.2. /etc/vsftpd/chroot_list
70.4.4.3. test
70.4.5. FAT
70.4.5.1. vsftpd: refusing to run with writable root inside chroot()
70.5. ProFTPD + MySQL / OpenLDAP 用户认证
70.5.1. Proftpd + MySQL
70.5.2. Proftpd + OpenLDAP
70.6. Pure-FTPd + LDAP + MySQL + PGSQL + Virtual-Users + Quota
71. File Synchronize
71.1. rsync - fast remote file copy program (like rcp)
71.1.1. 安装Rsync与配置守护进程
71.1.1.1. install with source
71.1.1.2. install with aptitude
71.1.1.3. xinetd
71.1.1.4. CentOS 7 - systemctl
71.1.2. rsyncd.conf
71.1.3. rsync 参数说明
71.1.3.1. -n, --dry-run perform a trial run with no changes made
71.1.3.2. --bwlimit=KBPS limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
71.1.3.3. -e, --rsh=COMMAND specify the remote shell to use
71.1.4. step by step to learn rsync
71.1.5. rsync examples
71.1.5.1. upload
71.1.5.2. download
71.1.5.3. mirror
71.1.5.4. rsync delete
71.1.5.5. backup to a central backup server with 7 day incremental
71.1.5.6. backup to a spare disk
71.1.5.7. mirroring vger CVS tree
71.1.5.8. automated backup at home
71.1.5.9. Fancy footwork with remote file lists
71.1.6. rsync for windows
71.1.7. 多进程 rsync 脚本
71.2. tsync
71.3. Unison File Synchronizer
71.3.1. local
71.3.2. remote
71.3.3. config
71.4. csync2 - cluster synchronization tool
71.4.1. server
71.4.2. node
71.4.3. test
71.4.4. Advanced Configuration
71.4.5. 编译安装
71.5. synctool
72. File Share
72.1. NFSv4
72.1.1. Ubuntu
72.1.1.1. NFSv4 server
72.1.1.2. NFSv4 client
72.1.2. CentOS
72.1.2.1. NFS Server Configuration
72.1.2.1.1. NFS 防火墙配置
72.1.2.2. NFS Client Configuration
72.1.2.2.1. Using NFS over UDP
72.1.3. exports
72.1.3.1. Permission
72.1.3.2. Parameters
72.1.3.3. 实例参考
72.1.4. NFS For Windows
72.1.5. exportfs - maintain table of exported NFS file systems
72.2. Parallel NFS(pNFS)
72.3. Samba
72.3.1. install
72.3.1.1. Ubuntu
72.3.1.2. Samba
72.3.1.3. CentOS 7
72.3.1.4. firewall
72.3.1.5. SELinux Configuration
72.3.2. smb.conf
72.3.2.1. Security consideration
72.3.3. testparm - check an smb.conf configuration file for internal correctness
72.3.4. smbstatus - report on current Samba connections
72.3.5. smbpasswd - change a user's SMB password
72.3.6. nmblookup - NetBIOS over TCP/IP client used to lookup NetBIOS names
72.3.7. smbfs/smbmount/smbumount
72.3.8. smbclient - ftp-like client to access SMB/CIFS resources on servers
72.3.8.1. 显示共享目录
72.3.8.2. 访问共享资源
72.3.8.3. 用户登录
72.3.9. smbtar - shell script for backing up SMB/CIFS shares directly to UNIX tape drives
72.3.10. by Example
72.3.10.1. share
72.3.10.2. user
72.3.10.3. test
72.3.11. FAQ
72.3.11.1. smbd/service.c:make_connection_snum(1013)
73. Distributed File Systems
73.1. DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device)
73.1.1. disk and partition
73.1.2. Installation
73.1.3. configure
73.1.4. Starting
73.1.5. Using
73.2. Network Block Device protocol
73.2.1. nbd-server - Network Block Device protocol - server
73.2.2. nbd-client - Network Block Device protocol - client
73.3. GridFS
73.3.1. nginx-gridfs
73.3.2. lighttpd-gridfs
73.4. Moose File System
73.4.1. Master server installation
73.4.2. Backup server (metalogger) installation
73.4.3. Chunk servers installation
73.4.4. Users’ computers installation
73.4.5. Testing MFS
73.5. LizardFS
73.6. Ceph
73.6.1. Installation on Ubuntu
73.6.2. Installation on CentOS
73.6.2.1. mon
73.6.2.2. mds
73.6.2.3. osd
73.6.2.4. client
73.6.2.5. RADOS Gateway
73.6.3. Block Devices
73.7. GlusterFS
73.7.1. glusterfs-server
73.7.2. glusterfs-client
73.7.3. Testing
73.7.4. RAID
73.7.4.1. Mirror
73.7.4.2. Strip
73.7.5. Filesystem Administration
73.7.6. CentOS 6.3
73.8. Lustre
73.9. MogileFS
73.10. Kosmos distributed file system (KFS)
73.11. Hadoop - HDFS
73.12. BeeGFS - The Parallel Cluster File System
73.13. Coda
73.14. OpenAFS
74. Shared Storage
74.1. Oracle OCFS2
74.1.1. 安装
74.2. GFS2
74.3. fam & imon
75. Network Attached Storage(NAS 网络附加存储)
75.1. Network Storage - Openfiler
75.1.1. Accounts
75.1.2. Volumes
75.1.2.1. RAID
75.1.2.2. iSCSI
75.1.2.2.1. Microsoft iSCSI Software Initiator
75.1.3. Quota
75.1.4. Shares
75.2. OpenMediaVault
75.3. FreeNAS
76. Backup / Restore
76.1. 备份策略
76.1.1. Incremental backup
76.1.2. Differential backup
76.2. dump / restore
76.3. Bacula, the Open Source, Enterprise ready, Network Backup Tool for Linux, Unix, Mac and Windows.
76.3.1. Install Backup Server
76.3.2. Install Backup Client
76.4. Amanda: Open Source Backup
76.5. Attic - 拥有重复数据删除技术的备份软件
76.5.1. 安装 Attic
76.5.2. 快速开始
76.6. SafeKeep
76.7. Opendedup
77. inotify
77.1. inotify-tools
77.2. Incron - cron-like daemon which handles filesystem events
77.2.1. incrontab - inotify cron table manipulator
77.2.2. 使用说明
77.2.2.1. mask 参数
77.2.2.2. command 参数
77.3. inotify-tools + rsync
77.4. pyinotify
VII. Monitoring
94. NET SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
94.1. 安装SNMP
94.1.1. Ubuntu
94.1.1.1. snmpd.conf
94.1.1.2. SNMP v3
94.1.2. CentOS
94.1.2.1. Configure SNMPv3 on CentOS or RHEL
94.2. 配置SNMP
94.2.1. community 配置
94.2.2. 定义可操作的范围
94.3. SNMP 命令
94.3.1. snmpwalk
94.3.2. snmpget
94.3.3. snmptest
94.4. Cisco MBI
94.4.1. Cisco 3750
94.4.2. Cisco ASA 5550
95. Zabbix
95.1. Installing and Configuring Zabbix
95.1.1. Ubuntu
95.1.2. CentOS Zabbix 2.4
95.1.3. Zabbix 3.x CentOS 7
95.2. web ui
95.2.1. 警告脚本
95.3. zabbix-java-gateway - Zabbix java gateway
95.4. zabbix-agent
95.4.1. Ubuntu
95.4.2. CentOS 7
95.4.3. zabbix_agentd 命令
95.4.4. Nginx status 监控
95.4.5. redis
95.4.6. MongoDB
95.4.6.1. 创建 Mongo 监控用户
95.4.6.2. Zabbix agentd 配置
95.4.6.3. Zabbix server 测试
95.4.7. PHP-FPM
95.4.7.1. 启用 php-fpm status 功能
95.4.7.2. 配置 nginx
95.4.7.3. 配置 Zabbix 代理
95.4.7.4. php-fpm 监控参数
95.4.8. Elasticsearch
95.4.8.1. 安装采集脚本
95.4.8.2. 配置Zabbix代理
95.4.9. Postfix
95.4.9.1. 安装采集脚本
95.4.9.2. userparameter_postfix.conf
95.4.10. TCP stats
95.4.10.1. 采集脚本
95.4.11. 应用依赖检查
95.4.12. Oracle
95.4.12.1. 采集脚本
95.4.12.2.
96. Cacti
96.1. Install Cacti for Ubuntu
96.2. Yum 安装
96.3. Source Install
96.4. Web 安装
96.5. Cacti plugins
96.5.1. Percona monitoring plugins
96.6. Template
96.6.1. Nginx
96.6.2. php-fpm
96.6.3. MySQL
96.6.4. Redis
96.6.5. Percona JMX Monitoring Template for Cacti
97. Nagios
97.1. Install
97.1.1. Nagios core
97.1.2. Monitor Client nrpe
97.1.3. Monitoring Windows Machines
97.1.4. PNP4Nagios 图表插件
97.2. nagios
97.3. nrpe node
97.4. 配置 Nagios
97.4.1. authorized
97.4.2. contacts
97.4.3. hostgroups
97.4.4. generic-service
97.4.5. SOUND OPTIONS
97.4.6. SMS 短信
97.4.7. nrpe plugins
97.5. 配置监控设备
97.5.1. routers
97.5.2. host
97.5.3. service
97.5.3.1. http
97.5.3.2. mysql hosts
97.5.3.3. check_tcp
97.6. Nagios Plugins
97.6.1. check_ping
97.6.2. check_procs
97.6.3. check_users
97.6.4. check_http
97.6.5. check_mysql
97.6.5.1. check_mysql
97.6.5.2. mysql.cfg check_mysql_replication
97.6.5.3. nrpe.cfg check_mysql_replication
97.6.6. Disk
97.6.6.1. disk.cfg
97.6.6.2. check_disk
97.6.6.3. disk-smb.cfg
97.6.7. check_tcp
97.6.7.1. 端口检查
97.6.7.2. Memcache
97.6.7.3. Redis
97.6.8. check_log
97.6.9. check_traffic
97.6.10. Nagios nrpe plugins
97.6.11. check_nt
97.6.12. nsca - Nagios Service Check Acceptor
97.6.13. jmx
97.7. FAQ
97.7.1. Macro Name
97.7.2. 插件开发手册
98. ElasticSearch + Logstash + Kibana
98.1. 安装
98.1.1. 6.x
98.1.2. ElasticSearch + Logstash + Kibana 安装
98.1.2.1. ElasticSearch 安装
98.1.2.2. Kibana 安装
98.1.2.3. Logstash 安装
98.1.2.4. 从 5.x 升级到 6.x
98.2. logstash 命令简单应用
98.2.1. -e 命令行运行
98.2.2. -f 指定配置文件
98.2.3. -t:测试配置文件是否正确,然后退出。
98.2.4. -l:日志输出的地址
98.2.5. log.level 启动Debug模式
98.3. 配置 Broker(Redis)
98.3.1. indexer
98.3.2. shipper
98.4. logstash 配置项
98.4.1. input
98.4.1.1. 标准输入输出
98.4.1.2. rubydebug
98.4.1.3. 本地文件
98.4.1.3.1. 指定文件类型
98.4.1.3.1.1. Nginx
98.4.1.4. TCP/UDP
98.4.1.5. Redis
98.4.1.6. Kafka
98.4.1.7. jdbc
98.4.2. filter
98.4.2.1. 日期格式化
98.4.2.2. patterns
98.4.2.3. syslog
98.4.2.4. csv
98.4.2.5. 使用ruby 处理 CSV文件
98.4.2.6. 执行 ruby 代码
98.4.2.7. grok debug 工具
98.4.3. output
98.4.3.1. stdout
98.4.3.2. file 写入文件
98.4.3.3. elasticsearch
98.4.3.3.1. 自定义 index
98.4.3.4. exec 执行脚本
98.5. Example
98.5.1. Spring boot logback
98.5.2. 索引切割实例
98.5.3.
98.5.3.1.
98.6. FAQ
98.6.1. 查看 Kibana 数据库
98.6.2. logstash 无法写入 elasticsearch
98.6.3. 标准输出
98.6.4. 5.x 升级至 6.x 的变化
99. Beta
99.1. 安装 Beta
99.1.1. Beats 6.x 安装
99.1.2. Beats 5.x 安装
99.2. filebeat
100. Logs 分析
100.1. log
100.1.1. logwatch
100.1.2. logcheck : Analyzes log files and sends noticeable events as email
100.1.3. nulog
100.2. Web
100.2.1. Apache Log
100.2.1.1. 刪除日志
100.2.1.2. 统计爬虫
100.2.1.3. 统计浏览器
100.2.1.4. IP 统计
100.2.1.5. 统计域名
100.2.1.6. HTTP Status
100.2.1.7. URL 统计
100.2.1.8. 文件流量统计
100.2.1.9. URL访问量统计
100.2.1.10. 脚本运行速度
100.2.1.11. IP, URL 抽取
100.2.2. awstats
100.2.2.1. 语言
100.2.2.2. 输出HTML文档
100.2.2.3. 多站点配置
100.2.2.4. 合并日志
100.2.2.5. Flush history file on disk (unique url reach flush limit of 5000) 优化
100.2.2.6. JAWStats
100.2.3. webalizer
100.2.3.1. 手工生成
100.2.3.2. 批量处理历史数据
100.2.3.3. crontab
100.2.4. Sarg - Squid Analysis Report Generator
100.2.5. goaccess - Fast web log analyzer and interactive viewer.
100.3. Tomcat
100.3.1. 截取 0-3 点区间的日志
100.3.2. 监控Redis
100.4. Mail
100.4.1. pflogsumm.pl - Produce Postfix MTA logfile summary
100.5. OpenSSH 日志 /var/log/secure
100.5.1. 查看登陆用户
100.6. rinetd.log
100.7. php-syslog-ng
100.8. Log Analyzer
100.9. Splunk
100.10. Octopussy
100.11. eventlog-to-syslog
100.12. Apache Flume
100.12.1. 安装 Apache flume
100.12.2. 基本配置
100.12.3. 配置 MySQL 存储日志
100.12.4. 配置 HDFS 存储日志
100.13. graylog - Enterprise Log Management for All
101. MRTG
101.1. Ubuntu 安装
101.2. CentOS 安装
101.3. 监控多个设备
101.4. 批量生成监控配置文件
101.5. 图片尺寸
102. Munin
102.1. Ubuntu
102.1.1. Installation Monitor Server
102.1.2. Installation Node
102.1.3. Additional Plugins
102.1.4. plugins
102.1.4.1. mysql
102.1.4.2. apache
102.2. CentOS
102.3. 用户认证
102.4. munin-node and plugins
102.4.1. munin-node.conf
102.4.2. mysql plugin
102.4.3. apache plugin
102.4.4. memcached plugin
102.5. munin.conf
102.6. munin-node
102.6.1. munin-node.conf
103. Ntop
103.1. Installation
103.1.1. Ubuntu
103.1.2. CentOS
103.2. Web UI
103.3. Plugins
103.3.1. NetFlow
104. Bandwidth
104.1. apt-get install
104.2. CentOS rpm/yum
104.3. source code
104.4. /etc/bandwidthd.conf
105. NetFlow
105.1. flow-tools - collects and processes NetFlow data
105.1.1. flow-capture
105.1.2. NetFlow into MySQL with flow-tools
105.2. netams - Network Traffic Accounting and Monitoring Software
105.2.1. netams-web
106. Ganglia
106.1. Server
106.2. Client
106.3. Plugin
106.4. Installing Ganglia on Centos
107. lvs-rrd
108. Observium
108.1. Installation
109. OpenTSDB
110. Graphite
111. Graphite - Scalable Realtime Graphing
112. BIG BROTHER
113. Big Sister
114. OpenNMS
115. Performance Co-Pilot
116. Clumon Performance Monitor
117. Zenoss
118. 商业软件
119. Hyperic HQ
120. OSSIM,Spiceworks,FireGen,LANSweeper,OSSEC,HIDS
121. HawtIO
122. moloch
123. varnish - a state-of-the-art, high-performance HTTP accelerator
123.1. Varnish Install
123.2. varnish utility
123.2.1. status
123.2.2. varnishadm
123.2.2.1. 清除缓存
123.2.3. varnishtop
123.2.4. varnishhist
123.2.5. varnishsizes
123.3. log file
123.4. Varnish Configuration Language - VCL
123.4.1. unset / set
123.5. example
124. Apache Traffic Server
124.1. Install
124.2. Configure
125. Zipkin 分布式链路追踪
VIII. Server Load Balancing
126. heartbeat
126.1. heartbeat+ldirectord
126.1.1. heartbeat
126.1.2. ldirectord
126.1.3. test
126.2. Pacemaker
127. Linux Virtual Server
127.1. 环境配置
127.2. VS/NAT
127.3. VS/TUN
127.4. VS/DR
127.4.1. 配置文件
127.4.1.1. Director
127.4.1.2. RealServer
127.5. ipvsadm script
127.6. Timeout
127.7. debug
127.8. ipvsadm monitor
128. keepalived
128.1. 安装
128.2. test
128.3. HAProxy and Keepalived (Virtual IP)
129. Piranha - Cluster administation tools
129.1. install
129.2. configure
129.3. real server
129.4. Example
129.4.1. Master
129.4.2. Slave
129.4.3. MySQL
130. HAProxy - fast and reliable load balancing reverse proxy
130.1. Installing
130.1.1. Ubuntu
130.1.2. CentOS
130.2. haproxy.cfg
130.2.1. stats
130.2.2. listen 方式
130.2.3. frontend/backend 方式
130.2.4. option
130.2.4.1. httpclose
130.2.4.2. forwardfor
130.2.4.3. httpchk
130.2.5. balance
130.2.6. server
130.3. Example 配置实例
130.3.1. HTTP 配置实例
130.3.1.1. 插入Cookie会话保持
130.3.1.2. HTTP URL 检查
130.3.2. Squid
130.3.3. haproxy + mysql 配置实例
130.3.4. HTTPS SSL证书卸载配置实例
130.3.5. 使用TCP模式实现SSL穿透
130.3.6. SMTP
131. balance - Load balancing solution and generic tcp proxy
131.1. balance
131.1.1. 编译安装
131.1.2. Ubuntu 安装
131.1.3. 测试安装是否正确
131.1.4. 用法
131.2. BalanceNG
131.3. RBridge
132. Perlbal
132.1. install
133. Pacemaker
134. Example
134.1. 双负载均衡的用法
134.2. 单台负载均衡的用法
134.3. 广域网负载均衡的用法
135. FAQ
135.1. Haproxy 与 Nginx
IX. Distributed Computing
136. Open Source Distributed Computing
136.1. Boinc (berkeley 分布式计算平台)
136.1.1. rc.local
136.2. ubuntu apt-get 安装
136.3. CentOS 安装
136.4. boinccmd
136.4.1. attach_project
136.4.2. nomorework | allowmorework 禁止下载任务 / 允许下载任务
137. Twitter Storm
137.1. 单机版
137.2. lein 安装
138. High performance Computing
138.1. Distributed Computing
138.1.1. OpenMosix
138.1.2. OpenSSI
138.2. Parallel Computing
138.2.1. EnFusion
138.2.2. SCore
138.2.3. Beowulf
140. Spark
141. Tachyon
142. Apache ZooKeeper
142.1. 安装配置
142.1.1. 单节点安装
142.1.2. 多节点安装
142.2. 管理 ZooKeeper
142.2.1. help
142.2.2. ls
142.2.3. create
142.2.4. get
142.2.5. set
142.2.6. delete
143. Hadoop
143.1. 单机安装(CentOS 7 + Server JRE 1.8 + Hadoop-2.8.0)
143.1.1. 安装 Java 环境
143.1.2. 安装 Hadoop
143.1.3. 启动 Hadoop
143.1.4. 启动与停止 hadoop
143.2. 分布式模式
143.3. 单机安装 CentOS 5 + hadoop-0.20.0
143.4. 分布式安装(CentOS 6 + hadoop-1.1.2)
143.4.1. 准备工作
143.4.2. NameNode 配置名称节点
143.4.3. DataNode 配置数据节点
143.4.4. Hadoop UI (WEB界面)
143.4.5. 测试Hadoop
143.5. Hadoop - HDFS
143.5.1. 创建目录
143.5.2. 文件列表
143.5.3. 显示文件
143.5.4. 上传文件
143.5.5. 下载文件
143.5.6. 用户权限
143.5.7. 访问权限
143.6. Web UI - Browse Hadoop Services
143.6.1. Cluster and Apps Information (ResourceManager)
143.6.2. NodeManager Information
143.6.3. Hadoop Overview of NameNode service
143.6.4. Hadoop file system browsing (Directory Browse)
143.7. FAQ
143.7.1. hadoop-1.1.2-1.x86_64.rpm 包含哪些文件内容
143.7.2. 启动 Hadoop 后 9000 端口不存在
144. Message Queuing & RPC
144.1. RabbitMQ
144.1.1. 安装 RabbitMQ
144.1.1.1. Ubuntu
144.1.1.2. CentOS
144.1.1.3. OSCM 一键安装
144.1.1.4. 检查端口
144.1.2. 配置 RabbitMQ
144.1.2.1. 监听所有适配器地址
144.1.3. rabbitmqctl - command line tool for managing a RabbitMQ broker
144.1.3.1. change_password
144.1.3.2. list_users
144.1.3.3. 虚拟机管理
144.1.3.4. list_queues
144.1.3.5. list_exchanges
144.1.4. rabbitmq-plugins - command line tool for managing RabbitMQ broker plugins
144.1.4.1. rabbitmq_management
144.1.5. Python - Pika
144.1.6. Ruby amqp
144.2. ZeroMQ
144.2.1. python-zeromq
144.2.1.1. pyzmq
144.2.1.2. example
144.2.2. ruby zmq
144.3. nanomsg
144.4. Gearman
144.4.1. Getting Started with Gearman
144.4.1.1. CentOS
144.4.1.2. Ubuntu
144.4.1.3. 防火墙设置
144.4.2. gearman
144.4.3. Gearman PHP Extension
144.5. Apache Kafka is a distributed publish-subscribe messaging system
144.5.1. 安装 Kafka
144.5.1.1. 安装 Kafka用于开发与测试环境
144.5.1.2. 安装 Kafka 适用于 IDC
144.5.1.3. Kafka 日志
144.5.1.4. 检查 Kafka 线程
144.5.2. 测试 Kafka
144.5.3. 配置 Kafka
144.5.3.1. server.properties
144.5.3.1.1. 外网访问
144.5.3.2. consumer.properties
144.5.3.2.1. group.id
144.5.3.3. producer.properties
144.5.4. 管理 Kafka
144.5.5. FAQ
144.5.5.1. WARN Error while fetching metadata with correlation id 1 : {test=LEADER_NOT_AVAILABLE} (org.apache.kafka.clients.NetworkClient)
144.5.5.2. Error while executing topic command : Replication factor: 1 larger than available brokers: 0.
144.5.5.3. WARN Connection to node -1 could not be established. Broker may not be available. (org.apache.kafka.clients.NetworkClient)
144.6. Celery
144.7. ActiveMQ
144.8. http://kr.github.io/beanstalkd/
144.9. gRPC
X. Security
145. Authentication
145.1. /etc/login.defs
145.2. PAM 插件认证
145.2.1. pam_tally2.so
145.2.2. pam_listfile.so
145.2.3. pam_access.so
145.2.4. pam_wheel.so
145.3. Network Authentication
145.3.1. Network Information Service (NIS)
145.3.1.1. 安装NIS服务器
145.3.1.2. Slave NIS Server
145.3.1.3. 客户机软件安装
145.3.1.4. Authentication Configuration
145.3.1.5. application example
145.3.1.6. Mount /home volume from NFS
145.3.2. OpenLDAP
145.3.2.1. Server
145.3.2.2. Client
145.3.2.3. User and Group Management
145.3.3. Kerberos
145.3.3.1. Kerberos 安装
145.3.3.1.1. CentOS 安装
145.3.3.1.2. Install by apt-get
145.3.3.2. Kerberos Server
145.3.3.3. Kerberos Client
145.3.3.4. Kerberos Management
145.3.3.4.1. ktutil - Kerberos keytab file maintenance utility
145.3.3.4.2. klist - list cached Kerberos tickets
145.3.3.5. OpenSSH Authentications
145.3.3.5.1. Configuring the Application server system
145.3.3.5.2. Configuring the Application client system
145.3.4. FreeRADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)
145.3.4.1. 安装 FreeRADIUS
145.3.4.1.1. Ubuntu
145.3.4.1.2. 安装 radiusd
145.3.4.2. ldap
145.3.4.3. mysql
145.3.4.4. WAP2 Enterprise
145.3.5. SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer)
145.3.6. GSSAPI (Generic Security Services Application Program Interface)
146. SELinux
146.1. getsebool - get SELinux boolean value
146.1.1. HTTP 相关配置
146.2. sestatus - SELinux status tool
146.3. setsebool - set SELinux boolean value
146.4. chcon - change file SELinux security context
146.5. rsync
146.6. 查找被SELINUX禁用服务
146.6.1. Nginx
147. Sniffer
147.1. nmap - Network exploration tool and security / port scanner
147.1.1. 端口扫描
147.1.2. HOST DISCOVERY
147.1.2.1. -sP: Ping Scan - go no further than determining if host is online
147.1.3. SCAN TECHNIQUES
147.1.3.1. -sU: UDP Scan 扫描
147.1.3.2. -b <FTP relay host>: FTP bounce scan
147.1.4. PORT SPECIFICATION AND SCAN ORDER
147.1.4.1. -p <port ranges>: Only scan specified ports
147.1.5. SCRIPT SCAN
147.1.5.1. ftp-anon
147.1.5.2. mysql-info
147.1.5.3. http
147.1.5.4. snmp
147.1.5.5. SSHv1
147.1.5.6. --script-updatedb 更新脚本
147.1.6. OS DETECTION
147.1.6.1. -O: Enable OS detection 操作系统探测
147.1.7. OUTPUT
147.1.7.1. --open: Only show open (or possibly open) ports 操作系统探测
147.1.8. 排除指定的主机
147.1.9. 查看本地路由与接口
147.1.10. MISC
147.1.10.1. -6: Enable IPv6 scanning
147.1.10.2. -A: Enables OS detection and Version detection, Script scanning and Traceroute
147.1.11. Nmap Scripting Engine (NSE)
147.2. tcpdump - A powerful tool for network monitoring and data acquisition
147.2.1. 监控网络适配器接口
147.2.2. 监控主机
147.2.3. 监控TCP端口
147.2.4. 监控协议
147.2.5. 输出到文件
147.2.6. src / dst
147.2.7. 保存结果
147.2.8. Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
147.2.9. Flags
147.2.10. 案例
147.2.10.1. 监控80端口与icmp,arp
147.2.10.2. monitor mysql tcp package
147.2.10.3. HTTP 包
147.2.10.4. 显示SYN、FIN和ACK-only包
147.2.10.5. 嗅探 Oracle 错误
147.2.10.6. smtp
147.3. cdpr - Cisco Discovery Protocol Reporter
147.4. ncat - Concatenate and redirect sockets
147.4.1. TCP 数据传输
147.4.2. UDP 数据传输
147.4.3. 始终保持服务器开启
147.4.4. 传输视频流
147.5. ngrep - Network layer grep tool
147.5.1. 匹配关键字
147.5.2. 指定网络接口
147.6. Unicornscan,Zenmap,nast
147.7. netstat-nat - Show the natted connections on a linux iptable firewall
147.8. Tcpreplay
147.9. Wireshark
148. sqlmap - automatic SQL injection and database takeover tool
148.1. Installation
148.2. 开始入住实验
148.2.1. 测试脚本
148.2.2. sqlmap.ini
148.3. Request参数
148.3.1. --method, --data
148.3.2. --cookie
148.3.3. --referer
148.3.4. --user-agent
148.3.4.1. -a
148.3.5. --headers
148.3.6. --referer
148.3.7. auth
148.3.7.1. --auth-type
148.3.7.2. --auth-cred
148.3.8. --proxy
148.3.9. --threads
148.3.10. --delay
148.3.11. --timeout
148.4. Injection
148.4.1. --dbms
148.4.2. --prefix
148.4.3. --postfix
148.4.4. --string
148.4.5. --regexp
148.4.6. --excl-str
148.4.7. --excl-reg
148.5. Techniques
148.5.1. --stacked-test
148.5.2. --time-test
148.5.3. --union-test
148.5.4. --union-tech
148.5.5. --union-use
148.6. Enumeration
148.6.1. dbs
148.6.2. --count
148.6.3. --dump/--dump-all
148.6.4. --sql-query
148.6.5. --sql-shell
148.7. Miscellaneous
148.7.1. --update
148.7.2. --save
149. Vulnerability Scanner
149.1. Nessus
149.2. OpenVAS
150. Injection & Penetration
150.1. Backtrack Linux
151. Suricata Engine
152. psad
153. fwknop
154. fwsnort
155. nftables
156. Haka
XI. Configuration Management(配置管理)
157. Ansible - SSH-based configuration management, deployment, and task execution system
157.1. install
157.2. Getting Started
157.3. ansible - run a command somewhere else
157.3.1. host-pattern
157.3.2. -a MODULE_ARGS, --args=MODULE_ARGS module arguments
157.3.3. -i INVENTORY, --inventory-file=INVENTORY specify inventory host file (default=/etc/ansible/hosts)
157.3.4. -m MODULE_NAME, --module-name=MODULE_NAME module name to execute (default=command)
157.3.5. -s, --sudo run operations with sudo (nopasswd)
157.3.6. -u REMOTE_USER, --user=REMOTE_USER connect as this user (default=root)
157.3.7. 使用实例
157.4. ansible-doc - Show Ansible module documentation
157.5. ansible-playbook - run an ansible playbook
157.5.1. 包含文件用法
158. Capistrano
159. Puppet
159.1. Installing Puppet CentOS 6.3
159.2. Puppet 签名
159.2.1. Agent 节点
159.2.2. Master 服务器
159.3. test
159.3.1. Master
159.3.2. Agent
159.4. 配置文件
159.4.1. /etc/sysconfig/puppet
159.4.2. /etc/puppet/fileserver.conf
159.5. manifests
159.5.1. node
159.5.2. group, user 用户组管理
159.5.2.1. group
159.5.2.2. user
159.5.3. file
159.5.3.1. ensure
159.5.3.2. source
159.5.3.3. owner, group, mode
159.5.4. package
159.5.5. service
159.5.6. exec
159.5.7. cron
159.6. modules
159.7. firewall 配置
159.8. debug
159.8.1. master
159.8.2. node
159.9. FAQ
159.9.1. err: Could not request certificate: No route to host - connect(2)
159.9.2. No help available unless you have RDoc::usage installed
160. SaltStack
160.1. 安装 Salt Stack
160.1.1. 服务端安装
160.1.2. 客户端安装
160.1.3. 防火墙配置
160.1.4. key 管理
160.1.5. 测试
160.1.6. Demo
160.2. salt-key - Salt key is used to manage Salt authentication keys
160.3. salt 命令
160.3.1. cmd
160.3.1.1. cmd.run
160.3.1.2. cmd.script
160.3.2. pkg.install
160.3.3. network.interfaces
160.3.4. salt example
160.4. /etc/salt/master
160.4.1. File Server settings
160.4.2. Pillar settings
160.4.3. Node Groups
160.4.4. File Server Backend
160.5. sls 脚本
160.5.1. pkg
160.5.2. service
160.6. FAQ
160.6.1. Git fileserver backend is enabled in configuration but could not be loaded, is git-python installed
161. Chef
161.1. 安装 Chef
161.1.1. CentOS
162. Cobbler
163. Cfengine
164. func
165. (R)?ex Deployment & Configuration Management
166. 基于Web的系统管理软件
166.1. Webmin
166.1.1. webalizer
166.2. ajenti
XII. Virtualization
167. Docker
167.1. Installation
167.1.1. CentOS 6
167.1.2. CentOS 7 docker-ce
167.1.3. Ubuntu
167.1.4. Ubuntu docker-ce
167.2. 配置 Docker
167.2.1. 开启远程访问
167.3. 镜像
167.3.1. 搜索镜像
167.3.2. 获取镜像
167.3.3. 列出本地镜像
167.3.4. 保存和载入镜像
167.3.5. 删除本地镜像
167.3.6. 基于 Dockerfile 创建镜像
167.3.6.1. 创建 Dockerfile 文件
167.3.6.2. 创建镜像
167.3.6.3. 运行镜像
167.3.6.4. 测试 Nginx
167.3.6.5. 提交镜像
167.4. 容器
167.4.1. 启动与终止容器
167.4.2. 进入容器
167.4.3. 导出和导入容器
167.4.4. kill
167.4.5. 删除容器
167.5. 仓库
167.5.1. 登陆仓库
167.5.2. 获取镜像
167.5.3. 上传镜像
167.6. 卷管理
167.6.1. 列出卷
167.6.2. 创建卷
167.6.3. 挂在镜像
167.6.4. 检查卷
167.6.5. 删除卷
167.6.6. 销毁所有未使用的卷
167.6.7. 在多个容器间共享卷
167.6.8. 容器绑定本地文件系统
167.7. 操作系统
167.7.1. /etc/hosts 配置
167.7.2. sysctl
167.7.3. ulimits
167.8. docker 命令
167.8.1. run
167.8.2. start / stop / restart
167.8.3. ps
167.8.4. top
167.8.5. inspect
167.8.6. images
167.8.6.1. Getting a new image
167.8.7. logs
167.8.8. history
167.8.9. 重置 Docker
167.9. Docker Example
167.9.1. Example Java - Spring boot with Docker
167.9.1.1. 获取 CentOS 7 镜像
167.9.1.2. 安装 openjdk
167.9.1.3. Spring boot 包
167.9.1.4. 启动 Spring boot 项目
167.9.1.5. 基于 CentOS 7 制作 spring 镜像
167.9.2. Redis
167.9.2.1. 获取 Redis 镜像
167.9.2.2. 启动一个 Redis 实例
167.9.2.3. 进入 Redis
167.9.2.4. 启动一个 Redis 实例并映射 6379 端口
167.9.2.5. 维护容器
167.9.3. Nginx
167.9.3.1. nginx:latest
167.9.3.2. 安装 Docker Nginx alpine
167.10. docker-compose - Define and run multi-container applications with Docker.
167.10.1. 安装 docker-compose
167.10.1.1. 使用 pip 安装
167.10.1.2. OSCM 安装
167.10.2. 启动/停止
167.10.2.1. 启动
167.10.2.2. 停止
167.10.3. 查看进程
167.10.4. 查看日志
167.10.5. 执行命令
167.10.6. docker-compose.yml
167.10.6.1. 版本号
167.10.6.2. 镜像
167.10.6.2.1. 挂在卷
167.10.6.3. 映射端口的标签
167.10.6.4. 添加 hosts 文件
167.10.6.5. 设置环境变量
167.10.6.6. 临时文件系统
168. Kubernetes
168.1. Minikube
168.1.1. 安装
168.1.1.1. CentOS
168.1.2. Quickstart
169. Kernel-based Virtual Machine(KVM)
169.1. kvm install usage yum
169.1.1. brctl / tunctl
169.1.2. virt-install
169.2. Ubuntu
169.3. CentOS 6.2
169.4. Scientific Linux Virtualization
169.5. libvirt
169.5.1. virsh
169.5.1.1. console
169.5.1.2. dumpxml
169.5.2. Virtual Machine Manager
169.6. FAQ
169.6.1. No hypervisor options were found for this connection
169.6.2. 如何判断当前服务器是实体机还是虚拟机
170. Xen
170.1. install
170.2. Manager
171. OpenVZ
171.1. 安装OpenVZ
171.2. 使用OpenVZ & 建立VPS
171.2.1. 安装操作系统模板
171.2.2. 创建OpenVZ操作系统节点(VPS)
171.3. 设置VPS参数
172. 虚拟机界面
172.1. OpenStack
172.2. CloudStack
172.3. OpenNode
172.4. OpenNEbula
173. vagrant - Tool for building and distributing virtualized development environments
173.1. vagrant for windows
XIII. 软件项目管理工具
174. TRAC
174.1. Ubuntu 安装
174.1.1. source code
174.1.2. easy_install
174.1.3. Apache httpd
174.2. CentOS 安装
174.2.1. trac.ini
174.2.2. standalone
174.2.3. Using Authentication
174.2.4. trac-admin
174.2.4.1. Permissions
174.2.4.2. Resync
174.3. Project Environment
174.3.1. Sqlite
174.3.2. MySQL
174.3.3. Plugin
174.3.3.1. AccountManagerPlugin
174.3.3.2. Subtickets
174.4. trac.ini
174.4.1. repository
174.4.2. attachment 附件配置
174.5. trac-admin
174.5.1. adduser script
174.6. FAQ
174.6.1. TracError: Cannot load Python bindings for MySQL
174.7. Apache Bloodhound
175. Gitlab 项目管理
175.1. GitLab
175.1.1. 安装 GitLab
175.1.2. GitLab Runner
175.1.3. 用户管理
175.1.4. 组管理
175.1.5. 项目管理
175.1.6. 绑定SSL证书
175.1.7. FAQ
175.1.7.1. gitolite 向 gitlab 迁移
175.1.7.2. 修改主机名
175.2. 创建用户
175.3. 创建组与项目
175.4. 分支管理
175.5. Issue
175.5.1. Milestones 里程碑
175.5.2. Labels 标签
175.6. 代码审查
175.7. 合并
175.8. WebHook
175.9. CI / CD
175.9.1. Pipeline
175.9.1.1. cache
175.9.1.2. before_script
175.9.1.3. stages
175.9.1.4. services
175.9.2. Java
176. Redmine
176.1. CentOS 安装
176.2. Redmine 运行
176.3. 插件
176.3.1. workflow
177. TUTOS
178. Open Source Requirements Management Tool
179. Jenkins
179.1. 安装 Jenkins
179.1.1. OSCM 一键安装
179.1.2. Mac
179.1.3. CentOS
179.1.4. Ubuntu
179.1.5. Docker
179.2. 配置 Jenkins
179.3. Jenkinsfile
179.3.1. Jenkinsfile - Declarative Pipeline
179.3.1.1. agent
179.3.1.1.1. label
179.3.1.1.2. docker
179.3.1.2. stages
179.3.1.3. script
179.3.1.4. junit
179.3.1.5. 设置环境变量
179.3.1.6. parameters
179.3.1.7. options
179.3.1.8. triggers
179.3.1.9. tools
179.3.1.10. post
179.3.1.11. when 条件判断
179.3.1.12. 跑出错误
179.3.1.13. Jenkins pipeline 中使用 sshpass 实现 scp, ssh 远程运行
179.3.1.13.1.
179.3.2. Jenkinsfile - Scripted Pipeline
179.3.2.1. git
179.3.2.2. 切换 JDK 版本
179.3.2.3. groovy
179.3.2.4. Groovy code
179.3.2.4.1. Groovy 函数
179.3.2.5. Ansi Color
179.3.2.6. 写文件操作
179.3.2.7. modules 实现模块
179.3.2.8. docker
179.3.2.9. input
179.3.2.10. if 条件判断
179.3.3. Steps
179.3.3.1. parallel 平行执行
179.3.3.2. echo
179.3.3.3. catchError 捕获错误
179.3.3.4. 睡眠
179.3.3.5.
179.3.3.6. 时间截
179.3.4. 版本控制
179.3.4.1. checkout
179.3.4.2. Git
179.3.5. 节点与过程
179.3.5.1. sh
179.3.5.2. Windows 批处理脚本
179.3.5.3. 分配工作空间
179.3.5.4. node
179.3.6. 工作区
179.3.6.1. 变更目录
179.3.6.2.
179.3.6.3. 分配工作区
179.3.6.4. 清理工作区
179.3.6.5. 递归删除目录
179.3.6.6. 写文件
179.3.6.7. 读文件
179.4. Jenkins Job DSL / Plugin
179.5. Jenkins Plugin
179.5.1. Blue Ocean
179.5.2. github-plugin 插件
179.5.3. Docker
179.5.3.1. 设置 Docker 主机和代理
179.5.3.2. 持久化
179.5.4. JaCoCo
179.5.4.1. Pipeline
179.5.5. Kubernetes 插件
179.5.5.1. Kubernetes Cli
180. SonarQube
181. Phabricator - an open source, software engineering platform
182. Gerrit
183. TeamCity
XIV. 软件版本控制
184. Git - Fast Version Control System
184.1. Repositories 仓库管理
184.1.1. initial setup
184.1.2. checkout
184.1.3. Creating and Commiting
184.1.4. Manager remote
184.1.5. Status
184.1.6. Diff
184.1.6.1. --name-only 仅显示文件名
184.1.7. Cloning
184.1.8. Push
184.1.9. Pull
184.1.10. fetch
184.1.11. Creating a Patch
184.1.12. reset
184.2. Manipulating branches
184.2.1. list branches
184.2.2. create branches
184.2.3. delete branches
184.2.4. switch branch
184.2.5. git-show-branch - Show branches and their commits
184.3. Sharing Repositories with others
184.3.1. Setting up a git server
184.3.2. 修改 origin
184.3.3. 删除 origin
184.4. Submodule 子模块
184.4.1. 添加模块
184.4.2. checkout 子模块
184.4.3. 删除子模块
184.5. Git Large File Storage
184.5.1. 安装 LFS 支持
184.5.2. LFS lock
184.6. command
184.6.1. hash-object
184.6.2. git-add - Add file contents to the index
184.6.3. git-status - Show the working tree status
184.6.4. git-commit - Record changes to the repository
184.6.5. git-show - Show various types of objects
184.6.6. git-checkout - Checkout and switch to a branch
184.6.6.1. checkout master
184.6.6.2. checkout branch
184.6.7. git config
184.6.8. git log
184.7. git-daemon 服务器
184.7.1. git-daemon - A really simple server for git repositories
184.7.2. git-daemon-sysvinit
184.7.3. inet.conf / xinetd 方式启动
184.7.4. git-daemon-run
184.7.5. Testing
184.8. git config
184.8.1. core.sshCommand
184.8.2. fatal: The remote end hung up unexpectedly
184.8.3. 忽略 SSL 检查
184.9. git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a single Subversion branch and git
184.10. .gitignore
184.11. .gitattributes
184.11.1. SVN Keywords
184.12. gitolite - SSH-based gatekeeper for git repositories
184.12.1. gitolite-admin
184.12.1.1. gitolite.conf
184.12.1.1.1. staff
184.12.1.1.2. repo
184.13. Web Tools
184.13.1. viewgit
184.14. FAQ
184.14.1. 导出最后一次修改过的文件
184.14.2. 导出指定版本区间修改过的文件
184.14.3. 回撤提交
184.14.4. 每个项目一个证书
185. Subversion
185.1. Invoking the Server
185.1.1. Installing
185.1.1.1. Ubuntu
185.1.1.2. CentOS 5
185.1.1.2.1. classic Unix-like xinetd daemon
185.1.1.2.2. WebDav
185.1.1.2.3. 项目目录结构
185.1.1.3. CentOS 6
185.1.2. standalone “daemon” process
185.1.2.1. starting subversion for debian/ubuntu
185.1.2.2. starting subversion daemon script for CentOS/Radhat
185.1.3. classic Unix-like inetd daemon
185.1.4. hooks
185.1.4.1. post-commit
185.1.5. WebDav
185.1.5.1. davfs2 - mount a WebDAV resource as a regular file system
185.2. repository 管理
185.2.1. create repository
185.2.2. user admin
185.2.3. authz
185.2.4. dump
185.3. 使用Subversion
185.3.1. Initialized empty subversion repository for project
185.3.2. ignore
185.3.3. 关键字替换
185.3.4. lock 加锁/ unlock 解锁
185.3.5. import
185.3.6. export 指定版本
185.3.7. 修订版本关键字
185.3.8. 恢复旧版本
185.4. branch
185.4.1. create
185.4.2. remove
185.4.3. switch
185.4.4. merge
185.4.5. relocate
185.5. FAQ
185.5.1. 递归添加文件
185.5.2. 清除项目里的所有.svn目录
185.5.3. color diff
185.5.4. cvs2svn
185.5.5. Macromedia Dreamweaver MX 2004 + WebDAV +Subversion
185.5.6. 指定用户名与密码
186. cvs - Concurrent Versions System
186.1. installation
186.1.1. chroot
186.2. cvs login | logout
186.3. cvs import
186.4. cvs checkout
186.5. cvs update
186.6. cvs add
186.7. cvs status
186.8. cvs commit
186.9. cvs remove
186.10. cvs log
186.11. cvs annotate
186.12. cvs diff
186.13. rename file
186.14. revision
186.15. cvs export
186.16. cvs release
186.17. branch
186.17.1. milestone
186.17.2. patch branch
186.18. keywords
187. 其他命令
188. IBM WebSphere
188.1. WebSphere Commerce Engerprise 7.0
188.2. UpdateInstaller (AppServer, Plugins, IBMIHS)
188.2.1. WAS
188.2.2. Plugins
188.2.3. IHS
188.2.4. backup
188.3. UpdateInstaller (CommerceServer70)
188.4. WebSphere Commerce Engerprise 7.0 Feature Pack 2.iso
188.5. creating a WebSphere Commerce instance
188.6. enableFeature
188.6.1. foundation
188.6.2. management-center
188.6.3. store-enhancements
188.6.4. checkEnablementStatus
188.6.5. check version
188.7. Start IBMIHS and AppServer
188.7.1. IBMIHS
188.7.2. AppServer
188.7.3. Starting and stopping the WebSphere Commerce Information Center
188.7.4. 管理入口
188.8. Initialization store
189. Graphics
189.1. ImageMagick
189.1.1. install
189.1.2. convert
189.1.2.1. 批量转换
189.1.2.2. resize
189.1.2.3. PDF to PNG
189.2. GraphicsMagick
189.2.1. 安装
189.2.1.1. CentOS 安装
189.2.1.2. 编译安装
189.2.2. mogrify
189.3. Photivo
189.4. How to add metadata to digital pictures from the command line
XV. Multimedia
190. Audio
190.1. ardour
190.2. LMMS
190.3. Qsynth
190.4. Rosegarden
190.5. TerminatorX
190.6. Pulseaudio
190.7. Synthesizer
190.7.1. ZynAddSubFX
190.8. Drums
190.8.1. Hydrogen
191. Video
191.1. OpenShot
191.2. cinelerra-cv
191.3. FFmpeg
192. Graphics
192.1. ImageMagick
192.1.1. install
192.1.2. convert
192.1.2.1. 批量转换
192.1.2.2. resize
192.1.2.3. PDF to PNG
192.2. GraphicsMagick
192.2.1. 安装
192.2.1.1. CentOS 安装
192.2.1.2. 编译安装
192.2.2. mogrify
192.3. Photivo
192.4. How to add metadata to digital pictures from the command line
193. Music score
193.1. LilyPond
193.1.1. Example
193.1.1.1. PNG/PDF/PS
193.1.1.2. Latex
193.2. MuseScore
194. Stream
194.1. broadcast streaming
194.1.1. gnump3d - A streaming server for MP3 and OGG files
194.1.2. icecast2 - Ogg Vorbis and MP3 streaming media server
194.1.2.1.
194.1.2.2. installation from source
194.1.3. shoutcast
194.1.4. PeerCast
194.2. WebRTC
196. 其他命令
XVI. Voice over IP
197. Gnu Gatekeeper
197.1. Gnu Gatekeeper Install
197.2. Gnu Gatekeeper Configure
197.3. Gnu Gatekeeper Test
197.3.1. Part I - Microsoft Windows NetMeeting
197.3.2. Part II - ohphone
198. OpenSIPS
198.1. 安装 OpenSIPS
198.1.1. centos 6.5 默认安装
198.1.2. 使用 yum.opensips.org 源安装
198.1.3. 编译安装
198.2. 数据库部署
198.2.1. DBTEXT
198.2.2. MySQL
198.2.3. PGSQL
198.2.4. Berkeley DB
198.3. 测试 opensips
199. PBX
199.1. Asterisk (OpenSource Linux PBX that supports both SIP and H.323)
199.2. FreeSWITCH
199.3. Yate - Yet Another Telephony Engine (includes SIP to H.323 translation)
200. VOCAL (includes a SIP to H.323 translator)
201. SIP/H.323 客户端
201.1. linphone
201.2. Yate Client
XVII. X Window
202. install x window
202.1. xinput - utility to configure and test X input devices
203. X Setup
203.1. 取消开机启动画面
203.2. Automatic login
203.3. fonts 字体
203.4. disable x window
204. X Terminal
204.1. tsclient - Terminal Server Client supporting XDMCP, VNC and RDP
204.1.1. VNC
204.1.2. xdmcp
204.2. vinagre - a remote desktop viewer for the GNOME Desktop
204.3. rdesktop - A Remote Desktop Protocol client
204.3.1. -g: desktop geometry (WxH)
204.3.2. -f: full-screen mode
204.3.3. -A: enable SeamlessRDP mode
204.3.4. -z: enable rdp compression
204.3.5. -r: enable specified device redirection (this flag can be repeated)
204.4. tigervnc
204.5. TightVNC
205. Unity
205.1. Enable/Disable Auto Hide For Unity 2-D Launcher In Ubuntu 11.10
206. X Window System
206.1. Fluxbox
206.2. LXDE
206.3. Xfce
206.4. Xming X Server for Windows
207. X Application Software
207.1. ubuntu-restricted-extras
207.2. Keyboard Input Methods(输入法)
207.3. 浏览器
207.3.1. Firefox
207.3.1.1. Error code: NS_ERROR_NET_INADEQUATE_SECURITY
207.3.2. Chromium Web Browser
207.4. Download Software
207.5. PAC Manager
207.6. LibreOffice
207.7. VYM (View Your Mind)
207.8. greenshot
207.9. Window Switch
207.10. gparted
208. Office
208.1. Calc
208.1.1. 函数
209. FAQ
209.1. 通过SSH与控制台不能登录
XVIII. SBC - Single-board computers
210. Raspberry Pi
210.1. 配置工具
210.1.1. rpi-update
210.2. WiFi 配置
210.2.1. 网络状态
210.2.2. WIFI 配置
210.2.3. WiFi 热点配置
210.2.3.1. 配置网络接口
210.2.3.2. 配置 DHCP
210.2.3.3. 配置 dnsmasq
210.2.3.4. 配置 hostapd
210.2.3.5. 路由与转发
210.2.3.6. 启动热点
210.2.3.7. 故障排除
1. 附录
1.1. 贡献用户列表
1.2. 参考文档
1.3. Red Hat 漏洞
1.4. National Vulnerability Database (NVD)
1.5. Red Hat Bug平台
1.6. Redhat Doc
1.7. System reduce
2. 历史记录

表格清单

1.1. Linux server partition
1.2. Linux desktop partition
23.1. 文件目录表达式
23.2. 字符串表达式
23.3. 组合表达式
41.1. net.ipv4.ip_forward
75.1. Volume Group Management
8. 表格标题

范例清单

11.1. 增加交换分区
11.2. GPT Example
11.3. 创建扩展分区
14.1. bonding example
14.2. 命令行建立WiFi链接步骤
23.1. A "Power User" Prompt
23.2. A Prompt the Width of Your Term
23.3. The Elegant Useless Clock Prompt
23.4. Basic conditional example if .. then
23.5. Conditionals with variables
23.6. case
23.7. Functions with parameters sample
23.8. Using select to make simple menus
23.9. Using the command line
23.10. Reading user input with read
23.11. read
23.12. random password
27.1. backup(find + tar)
29.1. example for expect
29.2. example for expect
29.3. example 1
29.4. *.exp
29.5. parallel - build and execute shell command lines from standard input in parallel
30.1. whiptail - yesno
30.2. whiptail - inputbox
30.3. whiptail - passwordbox
30.4. whiptail - passwordbox
30.5. whiptail - example 1
30.6. whiptail - radiolist
31.1. bonding example
31.2. 命令行建立WiFi链接步骤
41.1. /etc/sysconfig/iptables
41.2. connlimit 实例
41.3. CentOS 5.6
44.1. openvpn.conf
44.2. server.conf
44.3. Openvpn 桥接模式服务器配置实例
44.4. 双网卡配置实例
44.5. client.conf
44.6. server.ovpn
44.7. client.ovpn
44.8. office.conf
44.9. home.ovpn
46.1. Expires Examples
46.2. nginx expires
46.3. Nginx SSL 双向认证,证书生成过程
46.4. Example: valid_referers
46.5. Nginx + Tomcat
47.1. /etc/profile.d/java.sh
47.2. /etc/init.d/tomcat
47.3. Example /srv/apache-tomcat/conf
47.4. tomcat firewall
47.5. /etc/rc.d/init.d/www
48.1. index.php
48.2. autolamp.sh
48.3. R=301
48.4. mod_perl.conf
49.1. /etc/init.d/lighttpd
49.2. lighttpd compress
49.3. lighttpd expire
49.4. fastcgi.conf
49.5. Cache
50.1. explicit host in resin.conf
50.2. regexp host in resin.conf
50.3. host-alias in the resin.conf
50.4. host-alias in a /var/www/hosts/foo/host.xml
50.5. host-alias-regexp in the resin.conf
50.6. shared database in host
50.7. rewrite-dispatch
53.1. default.vcl
64.1. Subject Unicode
71.1. examples
71.2. backup to a central backup server with 7 day incremental
71.3. backup to a spare disk
71.4. mirroring vger CVS tree
71.5. automated backup at home
71.6. Fancy footwork with remote file lists
71.7. /etc/csync2.cfg
73.1. nginx-gridfs
73.2. Mirror
73.3. Strip
88.1. nmon
95.1. zabbix-agent 配置实例
96.1. cacti config.php
97.1.
98.1. spring boot logback
98.2. Elasticsearch 索引切割示例
100.1. config.php
101.1. mrtg
123.1. default.vcl
128.1. keepalived.conf
128.2. /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf
129.1. piranha master
129.2. piranha slave
130.1. haproxy + mysql 配置实例
130.2. Haproxy MySQL (Master + Master)
144.1. Ruby on RabbitMQ
144.2. server.py
144.3. client.py
145.1. /etc/pam.d/sshd - pam_tally2.so
145.2. /etc/pam.d/sshd - pam_listfile.so
159.1. puppetd
159.2. puppetca
160.1. salt command
169.1. virsh
185.1. authz