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第 5 章 Shell command


5.1. Help Commands
5.1.1. man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals manpath.config 查看man手册位置 指定手册位置
5.2. getconf - Query system configuration variables
5.3. test 命令
5.3.1. 判断目录
5.4. Directory and File System Related
5.4.1. dirname
5.4.2. filename 排除扩展名 取扩展名
5.4.3. test - check file types and compare values
5.4.4. file — determine file type
5.4.5. stat
5.4.6. mkdir - make directories
5.4.7. rename
5.4.8. touch
5.4.9. truncate
5.4.10. ls - list directory contents full-time / time-style 定义日期时间格式
5.4.11. cp - copy files and directories copy directories recursively overwrite an existing file -a, --archive same as -dR --preserve=all
5.4.12. rm - remove files or directories -bash: /bin/rm: Argument list too long zsh: sure you want to delete all the files in /tmp [yn]?
5.4.13. df - report file system disk space usage
5.4.14. du - estimate file space usage
5.4.15. tac - concatenate and print files in reverse
5.4.16. split - split a file into pieces 按行分割文件 按尺寸分割文件
5.4.17. find - search for files in a directory hierarchy name regex user perm type 分别设置文件与目录的权限 -delete exec 排除目录 -mmin n File's data was last modified n minutes ago. -ctime -mtime / -mmin --newer -print / -printf -size -path 目录深度控制 -maxdepth xargs
5.5. package / compress and decompress
5.5.1. tar — The GNU version of the tar archiving utility tar examples gunzip b2zip compress .xz 文件 -t, --list tar: Removing leading `/’ from member names -C, --directory=DIR --exclude -T 日期过滤 保留权限 -r, --append 远程传输 分卷压缩
5.5.2. cpio - copy files to and from archives
5.5.3. gzip
5.5.4. zip, zipcloak, zipnote, zipsplit - package and compress (archive) files
5.5.5. bzip2, bunzip2 - a block-sorting file compressor
5.5.6. RAR
5.5.7. 7-Zip 压缩 浏览压缩包 解压 Creates self extracting archive.
5.5.8. RAR
5.5.9. xz, unxz, xzcat, lzma, unlzma, lzcat - Compress or decompress .xz and .lzma files
5.6. date and time
5.6.1. 日期格式 weekday name
5.6.2. -d --date= 日期偏移量 day month year 时间偏移
5.6.3. 时间戳
5.6.4. RFC 2822
5.6.5. UTC
5.7. Numeric
5.7.1. 数值运算
5.7.2. seq - print a sequence of numbers
5.7.3. bc - An arbitrary precision calculator language
5.8. Text Processing
5.8.1. iconv - Convert encoding of given files from one encoding to another cconv - A iconv based simplified-traditional chinese conversion tool uconv - convert data from one encoding to another
5.8.2. 字符串处理命令expr
5.8.3. cat - concatenate files and print on the standard output -s, --squeeze-blank suppress repeated empty output lines -v, --show-nonprinting use ^ and M- notation, except for LFD and TAB
5.8.4. nl - number lines of files
5.8.5. tr - translate or delete characters 替换字符 英文大小写转换 [CHAR*] 和 [CHAR*REPEAT] -s, --squeeze-repeats replace each input sequence of a repeated character that is listed in SET1 with a single occurrence of that character -d, --delete delete characters in SET1, do not translate
5.8.6. cut - remove sections from each line of files
5.8.7. printf - format and print data
5.8.8. Free `recode' converts files between various character sets and surfaces.
5.8.9. /dev/urandom 随机字符串
5.8.10. col - filter reverse line feeds from input
5.8.11. apg - generates several random passwords
5.8.12. head/tail
5.8.13. 反转字符串或文件内容
5.8.14. TAB符号与空格处理 expand - convert tabs to spaces unexpand - convert spaces to tabs
5.9. grep, egrep, fgrep, rgrep - print lines matching a pattern
5.9.1. 删除空行
5.9.2. -v, --invert-match
5.9.3. Output control -o, --only-matching show only the part of a line matching PATTERN IP 地址 UUID 行列转换 递归操作 -c, --count print only a count of matching lines per FILE
5.9.4. Context control -A, --after-context=NUM print NUM lines of trailing context -B, --before-context=NUM print NUM lines of leading context -C, --context=NUM print NUM lines of output context --color
5.9.5. Regexp selection and interpretation .* 2010:(13|14|15|16) []与{} -P, --perl-regexp Perl正则表达式
5.9.6. fgrep
5.9.7. egrep
5.10. sort - sort lines of text files
5.10.1. 对列排序
5.10.2. -s, --stable stabilize sort by disabling last-resort comparison
5.11. uniq
5.12. 表格操作/行列转换
5.12.1. column - columnate lists
5.12.2. paste - merge lines of files
5.12.3. join
5.13. standard input/output
5.13.1. xargs - build and execute command lines from standard input 格式化 standard input -I 替换操作 -n, --max-args=MAX-ARGS use at most MAX-ARGS arguments per command line -t, --verbose print commands before executing them -d, --delimiter=CHARACTER items in input stream are separated by CHARACTER, not by whitespace; disables quote and backslash processing and logical EOF processing -0, --null items are separated by a null, not whitespace; disables quote and backslash processing and logical EOF processing -r, --no-run-if-empty if there are no arguments, then do not run COMMAND; if this option is not given, COMMAND will be -p, --interactive prompt before running commands
5.14. flock - manage locks from shell scripts
5.15. 进制转换 - 16进制 - 8进制 - 二进制
5.15.1. od - dump files in octal and other formats 16进制 使用 od 随机生成密码
5.15.2. hexdump, hd -- ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump
5.15.3. xxd - make a hexdump or do the reverse. 指定每行的列数 跳过字节
5.15.4. binutils strings - print the strings of printable characters in files.
5.16. Logging
5.16.1. logger - a shell command interface to the syslog(3) system log module
5.17. Password
5.17.1. Shadow password suite configuration.
5.17.2. newusers - update and create new users in batch
5.17.3. chpasswd - update passwords in batch mode
5.17.4. sshpass - noninteractive ssh password provider
5.18. 信息摘要
5.18.1. cksum, sum -- display file checksums and block counts
5.18.2. md5sum - compute and check MD5 message digest
5.19. envsubst - substitutes environment variables in shell format strings

5.1. Help Commands

5.1.1. man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals manpath.config

cat /etc/manpath.config 查看man手册位置

$ man -aw ls
/usr/share/man/man1/ls.1.gz 指定手册位置

man -M /home/mysql/man mysql